Humanitarians at war : the Red Cross in the shadow of the Holocaust

Purpose of this StudyThe State of ResearchSources and MethodsThe Birth of an IdeaThe Founding of the Red CrossZeitgeist of HumanitarianismGeneva ConventionsFirst Experiences with Wars in EuropeExpansion and Nationalization of the MovementTowards the First World WarInterwar PeriodThe League of Red Cross SocietiesThe Geneva Convention of 1929Testing the Limits of the ICRC Leading up to the Second World WarThe Silence on the HolocaustThe Power of PersonalityA Delicate Balance: The ICRC between Switzerland and the Third ReichInside Nazi GermanyNot Speaking Out: The ICRC’s ‘Most Shameful Moment’Intervention and OpportunismRescue Efforts for Camp PrisonersTurning Point: 1944The Neutrals Change CourseHungary: A Humanitarian Proving Ground for Civilian AidCompeting HumanitariansInter Arma CaritasThe Red Cross in CrisisThe Second World War and Its Challenge to Humanitarian IdealsThe Guardians of Humanity Had FailedInfighting in the Red CrossSweden and the League Charge AheadThe Soviets and the Left Join the FrayShip without a CaptainFinancial InsolvencyBetween Nuremberg and GenevaBurckhardt’s ‘Diplomacy’The Humanitarians and Allied JusticeThe ICRC and NurembergThe ICRC: Discretion and Direct Testimony at NurembergThe Fallout from NurembergThe ICRC and Aid Politics in RuinsHelping German CiviliansThe ICRC and the Expulsion of Ethnic GermansBurckhardt and Germans as VictimsThe Allies and Forced RepatriationThe ICRC’s Stance on Forced RepatriationICRC Policies in the Shadow of the Cold WarThe Humanitarians and the NazisIRO Travel Documents for VictimsThe ICRC’s Travel Document for AllThe Positive Consequences of Success: Recognition of the ICRC’s Travel Papers and Aid to RefugeesThe Drawbacks of Success: ICRC Travel Documents as Aid to Criminals and CollaboratorsA Window of OpportunityWashington and GenevaGeneva 1947: The Diplomats MeetBringing the Soviets to the TableDistractions from ReformProtecting the ProtectorsTowards the Geneva ConventionsPreparations for StockholmShowdown in StockholmFinal ComplicationsThe 1949 Grand FinaleIn the Aftermath of GenevaCrisis of HumanitarianismLong Shadows of HistoryAcknowledgementsSelected Bibliography
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