OECD Development Pathways Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development in Georg

A project with empirical groundingThe policy context is critical for how migration affects development in GeorgiaIntegrating migration into sectoral strategies will enhance migration’s role in developmentAssessment and policy recommendations in GeorgiaHow did the IPPMD project operate in Georgia?Emigration’s positive impacts can be enhanced in GeorgiaDespite short-term labour losses, emigration can be leveraged for positive outcomes in GeorgiaHow do sectoral policies influence emigration and development?Remittances can build financial and human capital, given the right policiesRemittances are not only used for consumption, but also for investmentHow do sectoral policies influence remittance use?Return migration to Georgia is an underexploited resourceReturn migration is a vector for investmentHow can sectoral policies make the most of return migration?A more coherent policy agenda can unlock the development potential of migrationIntegrate migration and development into labour market policiesLeverage migration for development in the agricultural sectorEnhance migration-led development by facilitating investment in educationStrengthen the links between migration, investment, financial services and developmentNotesReferencesGeorgia’s migration landscapeA brief overview of migration and remittance trends in GeorgiaGeorgia is a country of net emigrationRemittances to Georgia are increasing, while the financial cost of remitting is decreasingWhat are the key issues and knowledge gaps?There has been a gradual shift in emigrant destinationReturn migration is often temporaryLess is known about the impact of remittances, return migration and diaspora links on development in GeorgiaWhat role does migration play in national development strategies?Government policies targeting migration are new and concentrate on the diasporaWhat is the institutional framework governing migration?ConclusionsNotesReferencesUnderstanding the methodological framework in GeorgiaHow were the households and communities sampled?Household surveysCommunity surveysStakeholder interviewsHow were the data analysed?What do the surveys tell us about migration in Georgia?Emigration patterns are different for men and womenMore than one in four households receive international remittancesMost return migrants are happy to have come homeConclusionsNotesMigration and the labour market in GeorgiaA brief overview of the labour market in GeorgiaHow does migration affect the labour market in Georgia?Emigrants are more likely to come from the health sector and more skilled occupationsEmigration and remittances particularly affect women's employment decisionsRemittances seem to stimulate more self-employment among menReturn migration can boost self-employment in GeorgiaHow do labour market policies affect migration in Georgia?Unemployment motivates people to emigrateGovernment employment agencies have a limited impact on migration in GeorgiaVocational training programmes have little effect on migrationPublic employment programmes are too small scale to make an impactConclusions and policy recommendationsNotesReferencesMigration and agriculture in GeorgiaA brief overview of agriculture in GeorgiaHow does migration affect agriculture in Georgia?Households emigrants have less household labour for farmingAgricultural households do not seem to invest remittances in agricultureReturn migration is linked to both agricultural and non-agricultural investmentsHow do agricultural policies affect migration?Vouchers have the widest coverage of all the policy programmes surveyedAgricultural vouchers seem to increase the probability of emigratingAgricultural training programmes appear to be linked to emigrationInsurance-related programmes are linked to emigration, but not return migrationLand ownership and possession of titles are linked to migration outcomesConclusions and policy recommendationsNotesReferencesMigration and education in GeorgiaA brief overview of the education sector in GeorgiaHow does migration affect education?Highly educated individuals are more likely to plan to emigrateReturn migration can contribute to human capital accumulationEmigration and remittances are not linked to youth school attendanceRemittances tend to increase educational expendituresReturn migration is not linked to educational expendituresHow do Georgia’s education policies affect migration?Georgia’s education programmes have little effect on emigrationUnemployment and skills mismatches are strong emigration push factorsConclusions and policy recommendationsNotesReferencesMigration, investments and financial services in GeorgiaA brief overview of the investment and financial service sector in GeorgiaHow does migration affect investments in Georgia?Migration and remittances have limited effects on productive investmentsReturn migration is linked to entrepreneurship, but not real estate investmentsHow do Georgia’s investment policies affect migration?Many households have access to bank accounts, but this does not seem to impact remittance patternsFinancial training programmes are scarce in GeorgiaConclusions and policy recommendationsNotesReferences
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