In addition to the resources listed earlier, the following publications and scientific sources were used as references in the preparation of this book. Abstracts for most of these articles are available free on the National Library of Medicine's Web Site, PubMed (ncbi., and complete articles can be downloaded for a nominal fee.

Akkus O, Polyakova-Akkus A, Adar F, Schaffler MB. Aging of microstructural compartments in human compact bone. J Bone

Miner Res Jun 2003;18(6):1012-1019. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

AAOMS position paper on bisphosphonate-related

osteonecrosis of the jaw.

Published September 26, 2006. Accessed May 22, 2009. American Cancer Society. Cancer Statistics 2004. ACS. Available

at: Accessed August 2005. American College of Rheumatology. Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of GIO. Arthritis Rheum 2001;44: 1496-1503.

American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke

Statistics—2003 Update. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association; 2003.

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Medical guidelines for clinical practice for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr Pract 2003;9:544-564.

Anonymous. eHippocrates. Updated daily, 2009, Accessed September 28, 2009.

Atkinson C, Compston JE, Day NE, et al. The effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones on bone density in women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:326-333.

Atkinson C, Warren RM, Sala E, et al. Red-clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Breast Cancer Res 2004;6:R170-R179.

Bagger YZ, Tanko LB, Alexandersen P, et al. Two to three years of hormone replacement treatment in healthy women have long-term preventive effects on bone mass and osteoporotic fractures: the PERF study. Bone Apr 2004;34(4):728-735.

Balzini L, Vannucchi L, Benvenuti F, et al. Clinical characteristics of flexed posture in elderly women. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003;51:1419-1426.

Barnes PM, Powell-Griner E, McFann K, Nahin RL. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Adults: United States, 2002. Washington, DC: CDC Advance Data Report #343; 2002.

Baron JA, Beach M, Wallace K, et al. Risk of prostate cancer in a randomized clinical trial of calcium supplementation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14:586-589.

Barrett-Connor E, Mosca L, Collins P, et al. Effects of raloxifene on cardiovascular events and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med Jul 13 2006;355(2):125-137.

Bauer DC, Mundy GR, Jamal SA, et al. Use of statins and fracture: results of 4 prospective studies and cumulative metaanalysis of observational studies and controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:146-152.

Benjamin HJ, Glow KM. Strength training for children and adolescents. Physician Sportsmed2003:31(9). Available at: Accessed August 2005.

Beral V. Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet 2003;362:419-427.

Bertone-Johnson ER, Hankinson SE, Bendich A, et al. Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of incident premenstrual syndrome. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:1246-1252.

Bilezikian JP. Osteonecrosis of the jaw—do bisphosphonates pose a risk? N Engl J Med Nov 30 2006;355(22):2278-2281.

Binkley NC, Schmeer P, Wasnich RD, Lenchik L. What are the criteria by which a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis can be made in males and non-Caucasians? J Clin Densitom 2002;5(Suppl):S19-S27.

Birks Y. A structured education programme increased hip protector use and may reduce hip fractures in nursing homes. Evid Based Nurs 2003;6:114-115.

Birks YF, Hildreth R, Campbell P, et al. Randomised controlled trial of hip protectors for the prevention of second hip fractures. Age Ageing 2003;32:442-444.

Birks YF, Porthouse J, Addie C, et al. Randomized controlled trial of hip protectors among women living in the community. Osteoporos Int 2004;15:701-706.

Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, et al. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged > or =60 y. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:752-758.

Black DM, Bilezikian JP, Ensrud KE, et al. One year of alendronate after one year of parathyroid hormone (1-84) for osteoporosis. N Engl J Med Aug 11 2005;353(6):555-565.

Black DM, Greenspan SL, Ensrud KF, et al. The effects of parathyroid hormone and alendronate alone or in combination in postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 2003; 249(13):1207-1215.

Black DM, Schwartz AV, Ensrud KE, et al. Effects of continuing or stopping alendronate after 5 years of treatment: the Fracture Intervention Trial Long-term Extension (FLEX): a randomized trial. JAMA Dec 27 2006;296(24):2927-2938.

Black DM, Thompson DE, Bauer DC, et al. Fracture risk reduction with alendronate in women with osteoporosis: the Fracture Intervention Trial. FIT Research Group. J Clin EndocrinolMetab 2000;85:4118-4124.

Bobrow RS. Thiazide use and reduced sodium intake for prevention of osteoporosis. JAMA 2001;285:2323; author reply, 2324.

Boivin G, Meunier PJ. Changes in bone remodeling rate influence the degree of mineralization of bone. Connect Tissue Res 2002;43(2-3):535-537.

Bolland M, Hay D, Grey A, Reid I, Cundy T. Osteonecrosis of the jaw and bisphosphonates—putting the risk in perspective. N Z Med J2006;119(1246):U2339.

Bolognese M, Krege JH, Utian WH, et al. Effects of arzoxiffene on bone mineral density and endometrium in postmenopausal women with normal or low bone mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab Jul 2009;94(7):2284-2289.

Bone HG, Greenspan SL, McKeever C, et al. Alendronate and estrogen effects in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. Alendronate/Estrogen Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab Feb 2000;85(2): 720-726.

Bone HG, Hosking D, Devogelaer J-P, et al. Ten years' experience with alendronate for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 2004;350:1189-1199.

Campbell WW, Crim MC, Young VR, Evans WJ. Increased energy requirements and changes in body composition with resistance training in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:167-175.

Carbone LD, Nevitt MC, Wildy K, et al. The relationship of antiresorptive drug use to structural findings and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:3516-3525.

Cauley JA, Lui LY, Ensrud KE, et al. Bone mineral density and the risk of incident nonspinal fractures in black and white women. JAMA 2005;293:2102-2108.

Cauley JA, Robbins J, Chen Z, et al. Effects of estrogen plus progestin on risk of fracture and bone mineral density: the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial. JAMA 2003;290:1729-1738.

Chan K, Qin L, Lau M, et al. A randomized, prospective study of the effects of Tai Chi Chun exercise on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:717-722.

Chen Z, Ettinger MB, Ritenbaugh C, et al. Habitual tea consumption and risk of osteoporosis: a prospective study in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Cohort. Am J Epidemiol 2003:158:772-781.

Chesnut CH 3rd, Bell NH, Clark GS, et al. Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: urinary N-telopeptide of type I collagen monitors therapeutic effect and predicts response of bone mineral density. Am J Med 1997;102:29-37.

Chesnut CH 3rd, Silverman S, Andriano K, et al. A randomized trial of nasal spray salmon calcitonin in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis: the prevent recurrence of osteo-porotic fractures study. PROOF Study Group. Am J Med 2000;109:267-276.

Ciarella TE, Fyhrie DP, Parfitt AM. Effects of vertebral bone fragility and bone formation rate on the mineralization levels of cancellous bone from white females. Bone 2003;32:311-315.

Cizza G, Ravn P, Chrousos GP, Gold PW. Depression: a major, unrecognized risk factor for osteoporosis? Trends Endocrinol Metab 2001;12(5):198-203.

Clifton-Bligh PB, Baber RJ, Fulcher GR, et al. The effect of isoflavones extracted from red clover (Rimostil) on lipid and bone metabolism). Menopause 2001;8:259-265.

Clyman B. Exercise in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2001;3:520-523.

Coelho R, Silva C, Maia A, Prata J, Barros H. Bone mineral density and depression: a community study in women. J Psychosom Res 1999;46(1):29-35.

Cohen L. Depression rates in perimenopausal and premenopausal women: a longitudinal study (abstract). American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting, New York, NY; April, 2004.

Col NF, Eckman MH, Karas RH, et al. Patient-specific decisions about hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. JAMA 1997;277:1140-1147.

Coleman RE. Optimising treatment of bone metastases by Aredia™ and Zometa™. Breast Cancer 2000;7:361-369.

Colon-Emeric CS, Caminis J, Suh TT, et al. The HORIZON Recurrent Fracture Trial: design of a clinical trial in the prevention of subsequent fractures after low trauma hip fracture repair. Curr Med Res Opin 2004;20:903-910.

Cook AJ, Friday JE. Food mixture or ingredient sources for dietary calcium: shifts in food group contributions using four grouping protocols. J Am Dietetic Assoc 2003;103(11):1513-1519.

Cooper C, Atkinson EJ, Jacobsen SJ, et al. Population-based study of survival after osteoporotic fractures. Am J Epidemiol 1993;137:1001-1005.

Cramer JA, Monkar MM, Hebborn A, Suppaganya A. Does dosing regimen impact persistence with bisphosphonate therapy among postmenopausal osteoporotic women? (poster #M434). Presented at: 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone Mineral Research; October 1-5, 2004, 2004; Seattle, WA.

Creditor MC. Hazards of hospitalization of the elderly. Ann Intern Med Feb 1 1993;118(3):219-223.

Cromer BA, Lazebnik R, Rome E, et al. Double-blinded randomized controlled trial of estrogen supplementation in adolescent girls who receive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception. Am J Obstet Gynecol2005;192:42-47.

Cummings SR, Browner WS, Bauer D, et al. Endogenous hormones and the risk of hip and vertebral fractures among older women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. N Engl J Med 1998;339:733-738.

Cummings SR, Eckert S, Krueger KA, et al. The effect of raloxifene on risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results from the MORE randomized trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation. JAMA 1999;281:2189-2197.

Cummings SR, Ettinger B, Delmas PD, et al. for the LIFT Trial investigators. The effects of tibolone in older postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 2008:359:697-708.

Cummings SR, Melton LJ. Epidemiology and outcomes of osteoporotic fractures. Lancet 2002;359:1761-1767.

Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, et al. Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. N Engl J Med 1995;332:767-773.

Dalsky PG, Stocke KS, Ehsani AA, et al. Weight bearing exercise training and lumbar bone mineral content in post-menopausal women. Ann Intern Med 1988;108:824-838.

Dawson-Hughes B, Gold DT, Rodbard HW, et al. Physician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: National Osteoporosis Foundation; 2003.

Dawson-Hughes B, Lindsay R, Khosla S, et al. Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Washington DC: National Osteoporosis Foundation; 2008; available at: Accessed September 29, 2009.

Dawson-Hughes B, Tosteson AN, Melton LJ 3rd, et al. Implications of absolute fracture risk assessment for osteoporosis practice guidelines in the USA. Osteoporos Int Feb 22 2008;19(4): 449-458.

Dawson-Hughes B. Racial/ethnic considerations in making recommendations for vitamin D for adult and elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(Suppl 6):1763S-1766S.

Delmas PD, Bjarnason NH, Mitlak BH, et al. Effects of raloxifene on bone mineral density, serum cholesterol concentrations, and uterine endometrium in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1641-1647.

Delmas PD, McClung MR, Zanchetta JR, et al. Efficacy and safety of risedronate 150 mg once a month in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bone Jan 2008;42(1):36-42.

Denosumab information on the Amgen Web Site:

Accessed July 6, 2009. Deshmane V, Krishnamurthy S, Melemed AS, Peterson P, Buz-

dar AU. Phase III double-blind trial of arzoxifene compared

with tamoxifen for locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer.

J Clin Oncol Nov 1 2007;25(31):4967-4973. Donangelo CM. Calcium and osteoporosis. Arch Latinoam Nutr

Jun 1997;47(2 Suppl 1):13-16. Ellis GK, Bone HG, Chlebowski R, et al. Randomized trial of

denosumab in patients receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors

for nonmetastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol Oct 2008;26(30):


Ensrud KE, Barrett-Connor EL, Schwarts A, et al. Randomized trial of effect of alendronate continuous versus discontinuation in women with low BMD: results from the Fracture Prevention Trial long-term extension. J Bone Min Res 2004;19:1259-1269.

Ensrud KE, Black DM, Harris F, et al. Correlates of kyphosis in older women. The Fracture Intervention Trial Research Group. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:682-687.

Ensrud KE, Cauley J, Lipschutz R, Cummings SR. Weight change and fractures in older women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:857-863.

Ensrud KE, Ewing SK, Stone KL, et al. Intentional and unintentional weight loss, increased bone loss and hip fracture risk in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003;51:1740-1747.

Ensrud KE, Fullman RL, Barrett-Connor E, et al. Voluntary weight reduction in older men increases hip bone loss: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study. J Clin EndocrinolMetab 2005;90:1998-2004.

Ettinger B, Ensrud KE, Wallace R, et al. Effects of ultralow-dose transdermal estradiol on bone mineral density: a randomized clinical trial. Obstet Gynecol Sep 2004;104(3):443-451.

Ettinger B, San Martin J, Crans G, Pavo I. Differential effects of teriparatide on BMD after treatment with raloxifene or alendronate. J Bone Miner Res 2004;19:745-751.

Farmer ME, Harris T, Madans JH, et al. Anthropometric indicators and hip fracture. The NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1989;37:9-16.

Feltes C, Fountas KN, Machinis T, et al. Immediate and early postoperative pain relief after kyphoplasty without significant restoration of vertebral body height in acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Neurosurg Focus 2005;18:e5.

Ferrari SL, Deutsch S, Choudhury U, et al. Polymorphisms in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene are associated with variation in vertebral bone mass, vertebral bone size, and stature in whites. Am J Hum Genet 2004;74:866-875.

Feskanich D, Weber P, Willett WC, et al. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:74-79.

Feskanich D, Willett W, Colditz G. Walking and leisure-time activity and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. JAMA 2002;288:2300-2306.

Finkelstein JS, Hayes A, Hunzelman JL, et al. The effects of parathyroid hormone, alendronate, or both in men with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1216-1226.

Fitzpatrick L, Heaney RP. Got soda? J Bone Miner Res 2003;18:1570-1572.

Fletcher RH, Fairfield KM. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: clinical applications. JAMA 2002;287: 3127-3129.

Fontana L, Shew JL, Holloszy JO, Villareal DT. Low bone mass in subjects on a long-term raw vegetarian diet. Arch Intern Med 2005;165(6): 684-9.

Forman JP, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Folate intake and the risk of incident hypertension among US women. JAMA 2005;293:320-329.

Fosteum Product. Prescription product for osteopenia and osteoporosis. Fosteum Web Site: Accessed May 22, 2009.

Garnero P, Hausherr E, Chapuy MC, et al. Markers of bone resorption predict hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS Prospective Study. J Bone Miner Res 1996;11:1531-1538.

Garnero P, Shih WJ, Gineyts E, et al. Comparison of new biochemical markers of bone turnover in late postmenopausal osteoporotic women in response to alendronate treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;79:1693-1700.

Giovannucci E. The epidemiology of vitamin D and cancer incidence and mortality: a review (United States). Cancer Causes Control2005;16:83-95.

Gluck OS, Maricic MJ, Leib ES, Lewiecki EM. Recommendations regarding individuals in whom bone densitometry should be performed: comment on the article by van Staa et al. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:2715-2716.

Gold DT, Lee LS, Tresolini CP, eds. Working with Patients to Prevent, Treat, and Manage Osteoporosis: A Curriculum Guide for the Health Professions, 3rd ed. Available at pepper/osteocurriculum/index.html. Durham, NC: Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development, Duke University Medical Center; 2001.

Grady D, Ettinger B, Moscarelli E, et al. Safety and adverse effects associated with raloxifene: multiple outcomes of ralox-ifene evaluation. Obstet Gynecol Oct 2004;104(4):837-844.

Greendale GA, Barrett-Connor E. Outcomes of osteoporotic fractures. In: Marcus R, Feldman D, Kelsey J, eds. Osteoporosis, 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2001:819-829.

Greenspan SL, Emkey RD, Bone HG, et al. Significant differential effects of alendronate, estrogen, or combination therapy on the rate of bone loss after discontinuation of treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med2002;137: 875-883.

Greenspan SL, Resnick NM, Parker RA. Combination therapy with hormone replacement and alendronate for prevention of bone loss in elderly women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;289:2525-2533.

Guillaume G. Postmenopausal osteoporosis and Chinese medicine. Am J Acupunct 1992;20:105-111.

Hall SE, Criddle RA, Comito TL, Prince RL. A case-control study of quality of life and functional impairment in women with long-standing vertebral osteoporotic fracture. Osteoporos Int 1999;9:508-515.

Hamdy RC, Petak SM, Lenchik L. Which central dual X-ray absorptiometry skeletal sites and regions of interest should be used to determine the diagnosis of osteoporosis? J Clin Densitom 2002;5(Suppl):S11-S18.

Hanley DA, Ioannidis G, Adachi JD. Etridronate therapy in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. J Clin Densitom 2000;3:79-95.

Harris ST, Eriksen EF, Davidson M, et al. Effect of combined risedronate and hormone replacement therapies on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:1890-1897.

Harvard Medical School. The Benefits and Risks of Vitamins and Minerals: What You Need to Know. Boston, MA: Harvard Medical School-Harvard Health Publications; 2003.

Hayden JA, van Tulder MW, Malmivaara AV, Koes BW. Meta-analysis: exercise therapy for nonspecific low back pain. Ann Intern Med2005;142:765-775.

Hayden JA, van Tulder MW, Tomlinson G. Systematic review: strategies for using exercise therapy to improve outcomes in chronic low back pain. Ann Intern Med2005;142:776-785.

Hochberg MC, Greenspan S, Wasnich RD, et al. Changes in bone density and turnover explain the reductions in incidence of nonvertebral fractures that occur during treatment with antiresorptive agents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:1586-1592.

Hodgson SF, Watts SF. American Association of Clinical

Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: 2001 edition with selected updates for 2003. Endocr Pract 2003 2003;9:544-564.

Hoerger TJ, Downs KE, Lakshmanan MC, et al. Healthcare use among U.S. women aged 45 and older: total costs and costs for selected postmenopausal health risks. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 1999;8:1077-1089.

Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1997.

Jeffcoat MK, Lewis CE, Reddy MS, et al. Post-menopausal bone loss and its relationship to oral bone loss. Periodontology 2000;23:94-102.

Johnell O, Scheele WH, Lu Y, et al. Additive effects of ralox-ifene and alendronate on bone density and biochemical markers of bone remodeling in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:985-992.

Kalkwarf HJ, Specker BL. Bone mineral changes during pregnancy and lactation. Endocrine 2002;17:49-53.

Kanis JA, Black D, Cooper C, et al. A new approach to the development of assessment guidelines for osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 2002;13:527-536.

Kanis JA. Diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture risk. Lancet 2002;359:1929-1936.

Kerstetter JE, O'Brien KO, Insogna KL. Low protein intake: the impact on calcium and bone homeostasis in humans. J Nutr 2003;133:855S-861S.

Khan AA, Bachrach L, Brown JP, et al. Standards and guidelines for performing central dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in

premenopausal women, men, and children. J Clin Densitom 2004;7:51-64.

Kiel D. Hip protectors. Paper presented at: The Surgeon General's

Workshop on Osteoporosis and Bone Health; Dec 12-13, 2002;

Washington, DC. Kiel DP, Felson DT, Hannan MT, et al. Caffeine and the risk of

hip fracture: the Framingham Study. Am J Epidemiol

1990;132:675-684. Kostenuik PJ, Capparelli C, Morony S, et al. OPG and PTH-(1-34)

have additive effects on bone density and mechanical strength

in osteopenic ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology

2001;142:4295-4304. Kristal AR, Littman AJ, Benitez D, White E. Yoga practice is

associated with attenuated weight gain in healthy, middle-aged

men and women. Altern Ther Health Med 2005;11(4):28-33. Krolner B, Toft B. Vertebral bone loss: an unheeded side effect

of therapeutic bed rest. Clin Sci (Lond) 1983;64(5):537-540. Lambing CL. Osteoporosis prevention, detection, and treatment.

A mandate for primary care physicians. Postgrad Med

Jun 2000;107(7):37-41, 44, 47-38 passim. Landman JO, Hamdy NA, Pauwels EK, Papapoulos SE. Skeletal

metabolism in patients with osteoporosis after discontinuation

of long term treatment with oral pamidronate. J Clin Endocrinol

Metab 1995;80:3465-3468. Lanou AJ, Berkow SE, Barnard ND. Calcium, dairy products,

and bone health in children and young adults: a reevaluation of

the evidence. Pediatrics 2005;115:736-743. Leib ES, Lewiecki EM, Binkley N, Hamdy RC. Official positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry.

J Clin Densitom 2004;7:1-6. Lewiecki EM. Bazedoxifene and bazedoxifene combined with

conjugated estrogens for the management of postmenopausal

osteoporosis. Expert Opin Investig Drugs Oct 2007;16(10): 1663-1672.

Lewiecki EM. Emerging drugs for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Expert Opin. Emerging Drugs 2009; 14(1):129-144.

Lindsay R, Cosman F, Lobo RA, Walsh BW, Harris ST, Reagan JE, Liss CL, Melton ME, Byrnes CA Addition of alen-dronate to ongoing hormone replacement therapy in the treatment of osteoporosis: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3076-3081.

Lindsay R, Silverman SL, Cooper C, et al. Risk of new vertebral fracture in the year following a fracture. JAMA 2001;285:320-323.

Lloyd T, Johnson-Rollings N, Eggli D, et al. Bone status among postmenopausal women with different habitual caffeine intakes: a longitudinal investigation. J Am CollNutr 2000; 19(2):256-261.

Looker AC, Orwoll ES, Johnston CC Jr, et al. Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. adults from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12:1761-1768.

Looker AC, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, et al. Updated data on proximal femur bone mineral levels of US adults. Osteopor Int 1998;8:468-489.

Lyles KW, Colon-Emeric CS, Magaziner JS, et al. Zoledronic acid and clinical fractures and mortality after hip fracture. N Engl J Med Nov 1 2007;357(18):1799-1809.

Lyles KW, Colon-Emeric CS, Magaziner JS, et al. Zoledronic acid in reducing clinical fracture and mortality after hip fracture. N Engl J Med 2007;357:nihpa40967.

Magaziner J, Hawkes W, Hebel JR, et al. Recovery from hip fracture in eight areas of function. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000;55:M498-M507.

Majumdar SR, Kim N, Colman I, et al. Incidental vertebral fractures discovered with chest radiography in the emergency department: prevalence, recognition, and osteoporosis management in a cohort of elderly patients. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:905-909.

McClung MR, Lewiecki EM, Cohen SB, et al. Denosumab in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. N Engl J Med Feb 2006;354(8):821-831.

McClung MR, San Martin J, Miller PD, et al. Opposite bone remodeling effects of teriparatide and alendronate in increasing bone mass. Arch Intern Med2005;165:1762-1768.

McClung MR, Wasnich RD, Hosking DJ, et al. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss: six-year results from the early postmenopausal intervention cohort study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:4879-4885.

McClung MR, Wasnich RD, Recker R, et al. Oral daily iban-dronate prevents bone loss in early postmenopausal women without osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 2004;19:11-18.

McClung MR. Osteonecrosis of the jaw. Menopause e-Consult. April 2007;3(2).

McLean RR, Jacques PF, Selhub J, et al. Homocysteine as a predictive factor for hip fracture in older persons. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2042-2049.

Mease PJ, Ginzler EM, Gluck OS, et al. Effects of prasterone on bone mineral density in women with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy. J Rheumatol 2005;32:616-621.

Mehta NM, Malootian A, Gilligan JP. Calcitonin for osteoporosis and bone pain. Curr Pharm Des 2003;9:2659-2676.

Melton LJ 3rd, Chrischilles EA, Cooper C, et al. Perspective. How many women have osteoporosis? J Bone Miner Res 1992;7:1005-1010.

Melton LJ 3rd, Khosla S, Achenbach SJ, et al. Effects of body size and skeletal site on the estimated prevalence of osteoporosis in women and men. Osteopor Int 2000;11:977-983.

Meunier PJ, Delmas PD, Eastell R, et al. Diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: clinical guidelines. International Committee for Osteoporosis Clinical Guidelines. Clin Ther 1999;21:1025-1044.

Meyer G, Warnke A, Bender R, Muhlhauser I. Effect on hip fractures of increased use of hip protectors in nursing homes: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ2003;326:76.

Michel BA, Lane NE, Bjorkengren A, et al. Impact of running on lumbar bone density: a 5-year longitudinal study. J Rheumatol 1992;19:1759-1763.

Michelson D, Stratakis C, Hill L, Reynolds J, Galliven E, Chrousos G, Gold P. Bone mineral density in women with depression. N Engl J Med 1996; 335(16): 1176-1181.

Miller PD, Bonnick SL, Johnston CC, et al. The challenges of peripheral bone density testing: which patients need additional central density skeletal measurements? J Clin Densitom 1998;1:211-217.

Miller PD, Watts NB, Licata AA, et al. Cyclical etidronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: efficacy and safety after seven years of treatment. Am J Med 1997;103:468-476.

Mortensen L, Charles P, Bekker PJ, et al. Risedronate increases bone mass in an early postmenopausal population: two years of treatment plus one year of follow-up. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:396-402.

Munger KL, Zhang SM, O'Reilly E, et al. Vitamin D intake and incidence of multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2004;62:60-65.

National Institutes of Health. Osteoporosis and African American Women. Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases-National Resources Center, Revised 1/1/2003. Available at +Sheet&doctitle=Osteoporosis+and+African%2DAmerican+ Women. Accessed August 2005.

National Library of Medicine, Web Site for Clinical Trials, Effects of arzoxifene on bone fractures and incidence of breast cancer, Accessed July 23, 2009.

Nelson HD, Morris CD, Kraemer DF, et al. Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Diagnosis and Monitoring Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 28. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; publication No. 01-E032, contract No. 290-97-0018; Nov 2001.

North American Menopause Society. Menopause: Definitions and Epidemiology. Available at Accessed August 2005.

North American Menopause Society. Menopause Core Curriculum Study Guide, 2nd ed. Cleveland, OH: The North American Menopause Society; 2002.

North American Menopause Society. Treatment of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: position statement of the North American Menopause Society. Menopause 2004;11:11-33.

Obermayer-Pietsch BM, Bonelli CM, Walter DE, et al. Genetic predisposition for adult lactose intolerance and relation to diet, bone density, and bone fractures. J Bone Miner Res 2004;19:42-47.

Orr-Walker BJ, Evans MC, Ames RW, et al. The effect of past use of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on bone mineral density in normal post-menopausal women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1998;49:615-618.

Otto F, Thormell AP, Crompton T, et al. CBFA1, a candidate gene for the cleidocranial dysplasia syndrome, is essential for osteoblast formation and bone development. Cell 1997;89:765-771.

Phipps KR, Orwoll ES, Mason JD, Cauley JA. Community water fluoridation, bone mineral density, and fractures: prospective study of effects in older women. BMJ 2000;321:860-864.

Powels TJ, Hickish T, Kanis JA, Ashley S. Effect of tamoxifen on bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in healthy premenopausal and postemenopausal women. J Clin Oncol 1996;14:78-84.

Prince RL, Devine A, Dhaliwal SS, Dick IM. Effects of calcium supplementation on clinical fracture and bone structure: results of a 5-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in elderly women. Arch Intern Med Apr 24 2006;166(8):869-875.

Rauch F, Glorieux FH. Osteogenesis imperfecta. Lancet 2004;363:1377-1385.

Ray NF, Chan JK, Thamer M, Melton LJ 3rd. Medical expenditures for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures in the United States in 1995: report from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12:24-35.

Recker R, Stakkestad JA, Chesnut CH 3rd, et al. Insufficiently dosed intravenous ibandronate injections are associated with suboptimal antifracture efficacy in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bone May 2004;34(5):890-899.

Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocor-ticoidinduced osteoporosis: 2001 update. American College of Rheumatology Ad Hoc Committee on Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheum Jul 2001;44:1496-1503.

Reid IR, Brown JP, Burckhardt P, et al. Intravenous zoledronic acid in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. N Engl J Med 2002;346:653-661.

Reginster JY, Seeman E, De Vernejoul MC, et al. Strontium ranelate reduces the risk of nonvertebral fractures in post-menopausal women with osteoporosis: Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis (TROPOS) study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:2816-2822.

Rejnmark L. et al. Statins decrease bone turnover in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Clin Invest 2002;32:581-589.

Rittmaster RS, Bolognese M, Ettinger MP, et al. Enhancement of bone mass in osteoporotic women with parathyroid hormone followed by alendronate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85(6):2129-2134.

Riggs BL, Melton LJ 3rd. The worldwide problem of osteoporosis: insights afforded by epidemiology. Bone 1995;17(Suppl 5):505S-511S.

Rizzoli R, Burlet N, Cahall D, et al. Osteonecrosis of the jaw and bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis. Bone May 2008; 42(5):841-847.

Robbins J, Hirsch C, Whitmer R, Cauley J, Harris T. The association of bone mineral density and depression in an older population. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001;49(6):732-6.

Ronkin S, Northington R, Baracat E, et al. Endometrial effects of bazedoxifene acetate, a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol. Jun 2005;105(6):1397-1404.

Roos EM, Dahlberg L. Positive effects of moderate exercise on glycosaminoglycan content in knee cartilage: a four-month, randomized, controlled trial in patients at risk of osteoarthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2005; 52:11:3507-3514.

Rosen CJ, Hochberg MC, Bonnick SL, et al. Treatment with once-weekly alendronate 70 mg compared with once-weekly risedronate 35 mg in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized double-blind study. J Bone Miner Res 2005;20:141-151.

Ruggiero SL, Mehrotra B, Rosenberg TJ, Engroff SL.

Osteonecrosis of the jaw associated with the use of bisphos-phonates: a review of 63 cases. J OralMaxillofac Surg May 2004;62(5):527-534.

Saag KG, Emkey R, Schnitzer TJ, et al. Alendronate for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis Intervention Study Group. N Engl J Med 1998;339:292-299.

Salkeld G, Cameron ID, Cumming RG, et al. Quality of life related to fear of falling and hip fracture in older women: a time trade off study. BMJ 2000;320:341-346.

Salpeter SR, Walsh JM, Greyber E, et al. Mortality associated with hormone replacement therapy in younger and older women: a meta-analysis. J Gen Intern Med2004;19:791-804.

Sato Y, Honda Y, Iwamoto J, et al. Effect of folate and mecobal-amin on hip fractures in patients with stroke: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005;293:1082-1088.

Schettler AE, Gustafson EM. Osteoporosis prevention starts in adolescence. J Am Acad Nurse Pract Jul 2004;16(7): 274-282.

Schoofs MW, van der Klift M, Hofman A, et al. Thiazide diuretics and the risk for hip fracture. Ann Intern Med 2003;139:476-482.

Schull PD. Nursing Spectrum Drug Handbook. King of Prussia, PA: Nursing Spectrum; 2005.

Sedlak CA, Doheny MO, Estok PJ, Zeller RA, Winchell J. DXA, health beliefs, and osteoporosis prevention behaviors. J Aging Health Oct 2007;19(5):742-756.

Shane E, Goldring S, Christakos S, et al. Osteonecrosis of the jaw: more research needed. J Bone Miner Res Oct 2006;21(10):1503-1505.

Shin MH, Holmes MD, Hankinson SE, et al. Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94:1301-1311.

Sinaki M, Mikkelsen BA. Postmenopausal spinal osteoporosis: flexion versus extension exercises. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1984;65:593-596.

Siris ES, Miller PD, Barrett-Connor E, et al. Identification and fracture outcomes of undiagnosed low bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: results from the National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment. JAMA 2001;286:2815-2822.

Smith MR. Diagnosis and management of treatment-related osteoporosis in men with prostate carcinoma. Cancer 2003;97(Suppl 3):789-795.

Stenson WF, Newberry R, Lorenz R, et al R. Increased prevalence of celiac disease and need for routine screening among patients with osteoporosis. Arch Intern Med2005;165: 393-399.

Steptoe A, Wardle J, Marmot M. Positive affect and health-

related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory

processes. ProcNatl Acad Sci USA 2005;102:6508-6512. Stuenkel CA. Top ten menopause stories of 2007. Menopause

Management Jan/Feb 2008;17(1):10-21. Sunyecz JA, Weisman SM. The role of calcium in osteoporosis

drug therapy. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2005;14:180-192. The American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Boston:

Houghton Mifflin;1995. The Merck Manual of Geriatrics, 3rd Edition. 1995-2005.

Accessed 2005. Available at:

mrkshared/mmg/home.jsp. Tosteson AN, Melton LJ 3rd, Dawson-Hughes B, et al. Cost-

effective osteoporosis treatment thresholds: the United States

perspective. Osteoporos Int 2008;19(4):437-447. Tucker K. Abstract SA330. American Society for Bone and Mineral

Research 26th Annual Meeting; Presented October 2, 2004. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Bone Health

and Osteoporosis: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville,

MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General; 2004.

van Meurs JBJ, Dhonukshe-Rutten RAM, Pluljm SMF, et al. Homocysteine levels and the risk of osteoporotic fracture. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2033-2041.

van Schoor NM, Smit JH, Twisk JW, et al. Prevention of hip fractures by external hip protectors: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;289:1957-1962.

Venes D (ed.). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis;2005.

Viereck V, Grundker C, Blaschke S, et al. Phytoestrogen genistein stimulates the production of osteoprotegerin by human trabecular osteoblasts. J CellBiochem 2002;84:725-735.

Wardlaw GM. Putting body weight and osteoporosis into perspective. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63(Suppl):433S-436S.

Wasnich RD, Bagger YZ, Hosking DJ, et al. Changes in bone density and turnover after alendronate or estrogen withdrawal. Menopause 2004;11(Pt 1):622-630.

Wetli HA, Brenneisen R, Tschudi I, et al. A gamma-glutamyl peptide isolated from onion (Allium cepa L.) by bioassay-guided fractionation inhibits resorption activity of osteoclasts. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:3408-3414.

Wolf SL, Barnhart HX, Kutner NG, et al. Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of Tai Chi and computerized balance training. Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44:489-497.

Woodson GC. Risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal African-American women. Curr Med Res Opin 2004;20:1681-1687.

World Health Organization. WHO FRAX technical report. Accessed May 22, 2009.

World Health Organization. WHO Scientific Group on the Assessment of Osteoporosis at Primary Health Care Level: Summary Meeting Report. Brussels, Belgium: WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland; May 5-7, 2004. 2007.

Wu K, Willett WC, Fuchs CS, et al. Calcium intake and risk of colon cancer in women and men. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94:437-446.

Yaffe K, Krueger K, Cummings SR, et al. Effect of raloxifene on prevention of dementia and cognitive impairment in older women: the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) randomized trial. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162:683-690.

< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >