Training and Assessing Non-Technical Skills: A Practical Guide

PrefaceNon-Technical Skills A PrimerA Story of Revolutions and the Advent of High-Risk IndustriesSafety at the ‘Sharp End’ of OperationsA Stupid Human Broke My MachineA Basic Introduction to Non-Technical SkillsThe Role of Non-Technical Skills in Day-to-Day OperationsThe Role of Non-Technical Skills in Responding to Operational ComplexityThe Relationship between Non-Technical Skills and SafetyFrom Craftsmanship to Non-Technical SkillsOpen and Closed Skills: Soft and Hard SkillsThe Assumptions of This BookReferencesThe Classroom Is Dead Long Live CRM ...The Need for Training Non-Technical SkillsResearch into Pilot ErrorIndustry-Driven DevelopmentResource Management on the Flight Deck: The WorkshopIt All Began in a Classroom ...Hot Tub Therapy and BoomerangsThe Escape from the Classroom SeminarFormal Requirements for Training and Assessing Non-Technical SkillsJoint Training and Team TrainingParallel Developments: Anaesthesia Crisis Resource ManagementThe Global Spread of Resource Management ProgramsThe Future Is Bright ...ReferencesAdult Learning Principles and Non-Technical SkillsWhat Do We Mean by Training Non-Technical Skills?On the Matter of DefinitionsPrinciples of Adult LearningIndividual Learning StylesDomains of LearningThe Enabling Role of Core KnowledgeThe Reflective PractitionerConstructivismStages of InstructionElaboration TheoryCognitive Load TheoryModelling BehaviourSituated Learning and Cognitive ApprenticeshipsInstructional Use of Error: Learning from Our MistakesCompetency-Based TrainingTransfer of TrainingAdult Learning: A SummaryReferencesPrinciples of Training Non-Technical SkillsA Phased Approach to Training of Non-Technical SkillsTraining Context of Non-Technical Skills ProgramsMultidisciplinary and Team-Based TrainingGeneric and Abstracted or Tailored and IntegratedAttitudinal Change: Demonstrating Relevance and ImportanceCore Knowledge DevelopmentClassroom-Based TrainingThe Use of eLearning PlatformsCase Study TechniquesVideo-Based Case Study TechniquesNon-Technical Skill Development and RehearsalRole-Play SimulationSimulation and Training Non-Technical SkillsSimulation and LearningSimulation FidelityScenario Design for Simulation-Based TrainingOverarching Instructional Design ConsiderationsSkill Development and Rehearsal on the JobMentoring, Coaching and Apprenticeship ModelsBehavioural ModellingBriefing and DebriefingReferencesPrinciples of Assessing Non-Technical SkillsCompetency-Based Assessment of Non-Technical SkillsAssessing Skills in Context: Behavioural Marker SystemsKey Characteristics of Behavioural Marker SystemsDevelopment of Behavioural MarkersValidity, Reliability and SensitivityRating Scales and ScoringGeneric versus Specific Behavioural Marker SystemsIntegration with Technical AssessmentJeopardy Assessment: Pass or Fail?Objective AssessmentIndividual or Team Performance?Linked to Technical Failure?Is Poor Non-Technical Performance Reason Enough to Fail?Training Instructors, Calibration and Inter-Rater ReliabilityTraining the Non-Technical Skills Instructor and AssessorInter-Rater ReliabilityBiases and Assessment ErrorHalo EffectVisceral BiasCentral TendencyLeniency and SeverityContrast EffectExpert versus Self-AssessmentDebriefing Non-Technical Skill PerformanceSetting Goals and Expectations for the DebriefFacilitation, Not InstructionPromoting Reflection with Use of Video and Other ToolsQuestions, Probes and Prompting Deeper DiscussionActive Listening TechniquesLinking Debrief to RehearsalUnpacking the Cognitive ‘Frame’ of ParticipantsDebriefing for Learning on the JobReferencesInstructional Systems DesignInstructional Systems DesignAnalysis: Identification of Specific Training NeedsDesign: Specification of Clear Learning ObjectivesDevelopment: Detailed Curriculum of Training Events and Assessment TasksDelivery: Instructional Events in the Form of Training and AssessmentEvaluation of Training EffectivenessAnalysis and Specification of Training NeedsRisk-Based Training Needs AnalysisCognitive Task AnalysisCognitive Work AnalysisAddressing Organisational and Individual NeedsEvidence-Based TrainingData from the Safety Management SystemGap AnalysisPersonalised TrainingDefining Curriculum Outcomes and Instructional ObjectivesSpecifying Curriculum OutcomesSpecifying Instructional ObjectivesPerformance StatementsCurriculum DesignDesigning Assessment TasksDesigning Training EventsSequencing Training EventsSpecifying Equipment and MaterialsGenerating Guidance Material for Instructors and TraineesImplementation and DeliveryLearner EngagementInstructor PreparationEvaluation of Training ProgramsReferencesTraining and Assessing Situation AwarenessSituation Awareness: A PrimerSituation Awareness: Exemplar Case StudySituation Awareness: Core Enabling KnowledgeThe Basic Model of Situation AwarenessA Basic Introduction to Information ProcessingDistributed Cognition and Distributed Situation AwarenessCue Use and Cue UtilisationInattentional BlindnessRole of Situation Awareness in Error DetectionInfluence of Distraction, Workload and Other FactorsSituation Awareness RecoverySituation Awareness: Skill DevelopmentGeneral Targets for Skill DevelopmentIndividual versus Team Situation Awareness TrainingExposure to Factors That Degrade Situation AwarenessSituation Awareness: Simulation-Based TrainingCreating Rich Information EnvironmentsFreeze Technique and Reflection/DebriefControlled Manipulation of Events to Degrade Situation Awareness and Demand Situation Awareness RecoverySituation Awareness: On-the-Job TrainingActivation and PrimingBehavioural ModellingSituation Awareness: Pre-Training BriefingSituation Awareness: Assessment and Behavioural MarkersSituation Awareness: Debriefing and CoachingSituation Awareness: Key ResourcesCase StudiesReferencesTraining and Assessing Decision-MakingDecision-Making: A PrimerDecision-Making: Exemplar Case StudyDecision-Making: Core Enabling KnowledgeClassical Model of Decision-MakingBounded Rationality in ContextRecognition-Primed Decision-Making and Fast and Frugal ApproachesHeuristics and Cognitive BiasesTeam Decision ProcessesDistributed Decision-MakingDecision-Making: Skill DevelopmentBasic Foundational Skills: Situation Awareness, Risk Assessment and EvaluationSystematic Decision-Making ProcessesDe-BiasingAnalogical ReasoningTeam-Based TrainingDecision-Making: Simulation-Based TrainingCritical Decision EventsBuilding Expertise and a Repository of ExperienceReinforcing the Use of MnemonicsScenarios Designed to Induce Negative Heuristics and BiasesCreating Complex and High-Pressure SituationsDeveloping and Maintaining Shared Mental ModelsDecision-Making: On-the-Job TrainingModelling and ExpertiseReinforcing Sources of Information and ResourcesDecision-Making: Pre-Training BriefingDecision-Making: Assessment and Behavioural MarkersAvoiding Bias in Assessment JudgementsCritical Decision MethodBehavioural MarkersDecision-Making: Debriefing and CoachingCase StudiesReferencesTraining and Assessing Communication and Teamwork SkillsCommunication and Teamwork: A PrimerCommunication and Teamwork: Exemplar Case StudyCommunication and Teamwork: Core Enabling KnowledgeModels of CommunicationModes of Communication: Verbal, Intonation, Non-Verbal and WrittenInformation Exchange and Closed Loop CommunicationBarriers to Effective Communication and TeamworkEnquiry and AssertivenessTeam CoordinationCommunication and Teamwork: Skill DevelopmentExchanging InformationEnquiry and Graded AssertivenessTeam Coordination TrainingTeam Self-Correction TrainingCommunication and Teamwork: Simulation-Based TrainingLow Fidelity and Role-PlayConfederates: Scripting Roles to Elicit Specific StrategiesChallenging Cultural Norms and Legitimising New NormsCommunication and Teamwork: On-the-Job TrainingThe ‘Freeze’ TechniqueVideo-Based DebriefCritical Incident DebriefCommunication and Teamwork: Pre-Training BriefingCommunication and Teamwork: Assessment and Behavioural MarkersCommunication and Teamwork: Debriefing and CoachingCommunication and Teamwork: Key ResourcesCase StudiesReferencesTraining and Assessing Task ManagementTask Management: A PrimerTask Management: Exemplar Case StudyTask Management: Core Enabling KnowledgeThe Role of Planning in PerformanceHuman Information ProcessingWorkload LimitationsIndicators of Adverse Workload ConditionsCompensatory Control and the Effort MonitorDelegation and Distributed Team PerformancePrioritisation of TasksThe Negative Impact of InterruptionsTask Management: Skill DevelopmentLeadershipEffective Planning TechniquesRecognition of Adverse Workload SituationsAppropriate Compensatory Control Strategies to Maintain SafetyManaging InterruptionsProspective Memory AidsTask Management: Simulation-Based TrainingHigh-Workload Non-Normal SituationsStress Exposure TrainingExposure to and Practice Recovering from Unsafe System StatesRehearsal and ExtensionTask Management: On-the-Job TrainingPre-Work PlanningContingency PlanningPost-Event DebriefTask Management: Pre-Training BriefingAllowing Training Participants to Plan and Brief ThemselvesTask Management: Assessment and Behavioural MarkersSelf-Report Workload ScalesBehavioural MarkersTask Management: Debriefing and CoachingTask Management: Key ResourcesCase StudiesReferencesThe Future of Training and Assessing Nontechnical SkillsSummaryA More Integrated Approach to Skill DevelopmentA More Targeted Approach to Skill DevelopmentHarnessing the Potential of New TechnologiesBuilding More Responsive Training SystemsTraining across Distributed SystemsA Final NoteReferences
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