Children and Forced Migration: Durable Solutions During Transient Years

Children and Forced Migration: Durable and Transitional SolutionsChildren, Durable Solutions, and the Current Refugee CrisisGirls, Boys, and Transience: Issues of Gender and GenerationThe Chapters That FollowWorks CitedI Durable Solutions and Crises: Displacement of Children and Youth Resulting from Humanitarian EmergenciesEnduring Solutions in the Midst of "Crisis": Refugee Children in EuropeA Child Rights Analysis of Refugee Children's Plight and Europe's ResponseCharting the Refugee Child's Motivations and Journey into EuropeIdentification of Protection Risks and a Corresponding Child Rights AnalysisStrengthening Social Welfare and Child Protection Systems in Germany and SwedenThe European-Level ResponseThe Search for Durable Solutions in a Child's Best InterestsMeaningful Access by Children to Traditional Durable SolutionsThe Link Between Admission Pathways, Family Unity, and Protection: Other Forms of Durable SolutionsConcluding RemarksWorks CitedWhat Kind of Welcome? Addressing the Integration Needs of Central American Children and Adolescents in US Local CommunitiesChild Migrants Make HeadlinesChild Migrants Have Been Coming to the USA Alone Since Ellis IslandReception in Communities and FamiliesThe Welcome Mat Is Out in Many Communities, But Will It Remain Out?What Happens After the Honeymoon Is Over?Education and EmploymentAre Newly Arriving Immigrant Children Stressing the Public School System?Enhancing Newly Arrived Students' English Language ProficiencyThe Role of Teachers and School AdministratorsStepping into the Murky and Dangerous Waters of Illegal EmploymentBeyond Education and Employment: Meeting Psychosocial NeedsConclusion: Challenges for the FutureWorks CitedTurning the Invisible into the Visible: Stateless Children in ItalyThe Sensation of InvisibilityThe Right to Have RightsBeing Stateless in ItalyThe Promise of Durable SolutionsConcluding RemarksWorks CitedII Repatriation and (Re)Integration: Dilemmas of Sustainable ReturnRefugee Girls and Boys and the Dilemmas of (Un)Sustainable Return to South SudanIntroduction: Return as a Durable Solution to Forced DisplacementResearching Durable Solutions: Framework, Concepts, and MethodsThe Context of Repatriation: Historical Determinants of Displacement and ReturnChallenges and Opportunities of Post-CPA Return in 2005-2013Age and Gender Dynamics of Returnee Girls and BoysResurgence of Violent Conflict and Displacement Once AgainConcluding RemarksWorks CitedReintegration of First- and Second-Generation Children Returned to Burundi: A Multidimensional ApproachConflict and Return Migration to BurundiThe Return of First- and Second-Generation ChildrenDefining and Measuring ReintegrationDataChild Returnees' ProfilesResultsDiscussion and ConclusionWorks CitedPathway of Hope: A Learning Certification Solution for Internally Displaced Children in Northern SyriaBackground: The Northern Syria ContextMethodologyLimitationsCrises and Education: A Growing Global ChallengeThe Changing Nature of CrisesEducating IDCs During Crises: The Supple Side and the Question of MandateEducating IDCs During Crises: The Demand- Side PerspectiveThe Challenge of Certifying IDC LearningAn Introduction to CertificationCertifying IDC Learning: Lessons LearnedFlexibility and Simplicity Must Frame Any EffortHigh-Stakes Testing Should Not Be the Only Means of CertificationExisting Sector Standards Should Be Used to Help Frame the Certification PathwayCollaboration Among Many Stakeholders Is CriticalNongovernmental Actors Should Not Be the Certifying AgentsHumanitarian Principals Must Be RespectedConclusion and RecommendationsUNESCO Should Establish a Certification Body for Northern Syrian ChildrenRegional Certification Body Should Consider Best Practices from the LiteratureThe Envisioned ChallengesRecognition Cannot Be AssuredSecurity Concerns Are Legitimate(Too) High Standards Can Set the System Up for FailureFinancial Support Will Be a ChallengeEducation Will Remain PoliticalWorks CitedInterviews CitedIII Asylum-Seeking and Local Integration: Protection and Assimilation in Exile Taking the Long View: The Consequences of Displacement for Children in AfghanistanLiterature ReviewMethodologyDataEmpirical ModelsResultsConclusionPolicy DiscussionWorks CitedA Systems Approach to Child Protection: Does Theory Reflect Reality in Protracted Refugee Situations?Developments in Child Protection Programming: From Issues and Needs to Rights and SystemsChild Protection from a Human Rights PerspectiveFraming the Theory of a Systems Approach to Child ProtectionA Systems Approach to Child Protection in PRSProtection Programming in Refugee SituationsSpectrum and Examples of Protection Risks and Vulnerabilities of PRS ChildrenWorking with Children in PRS: A Subsystem within the Child Protection SystemRethinking System BoundariesConclusionWorks CitedMaking Human Rights a Reality for Refugee Children: A Prerequisite to Local Integration as a Durable SolutionA Word About MethodologyThe LawThe RealityClosing the GapAsylum Access: A Case StudyDiving Deeper: Examples from Ecuador, Thailand, and TanzaniaEcuadorThailandTanzaniaDecoupling Rights from PermanenceWorks Cited"Brothers Will Be Everywhere": Youth Involvement in Martial Arts as the East Timorese Displaced Persons Struggle for Recognition in Their Community in Naibonat, East Nusa Tenggara, IndonesiaFrom "Refugees" to "New Citizens"Authorized Yet Unrecognized: The Youths' Limited AccessViolent Image as the Justification of ExclusionYouths' "Time-Passing" Activities in NaibonatPerguruan Silat: A "Tactical Bricolage" Across Indonesia and Timor LesteProtecting Self and FamiliesGaining Respect and Support from BrothersContemplate Identity Through PerguruanQuitting a Perguruan After Gaining RecognitionConclusionWorks CitedIV Resettlement in a Third Country: In Transit to Various Foreign LandsFinding Better Ways to Support Resettled Refugee Families: Dealing with Intergenerational ConflictDemographic Characteristics and the Cultural Position of South Sudanese-Australian FamiliesMethodologyFindingsDifferential Acculturation and Shifting Power Dynamics Within FamiliesSupporting Parenting TransitionSupporting YouthDiscussionConclusionWorks CitedUnaccompanied Young Asylum-Seekers Stuck in Transit in Indonesia: Intimate Relationships and ResilienceUnaccompanied Young Asylum-Seekers in IndonesiaForging Functional Friendships and Intimate RelationshipsChildhood, Youth, and SexualityConclusionWorks CitedNo Date on the Door: Direct Provision Housing, Child Asylum-Seekers, and Ireland's Violations of the UN Convention on the Rights of the ChildMethodsHistory of Ireland's Refugee and Asylum-Seeker Protection RegimeAn Important Distinction in Irish Law: Refugees Versus Asylum-SeekersDirect Provision in the Context of the EU and International LawThe Government's Rationale for Direct Provision HousingViolations of the CRC: Safety Concerns for Children in Direct ProvisionMaterial DeprivationRelieving Responsibility: Direct Provision as Social ExclusionAssessment of the Government's Position in Light of Criticisms of Direct ProvisionConstructing Durable Policy Solutions for the Difficulties Faced by Child Asylum-SeekersConclusionAcknowledgmentsWorks CitedConclusion: Durable Solutions During Transient Years: Lessons LearnedYoungsters, Forced Displacement, and WorldlessnessLessons LearnedConcluding ThoughtsWorks Cited
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