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HRI Metrics

In this section, we define metrics that have been used for HRI in rehabilitation robotics as well as commonly used measures for these metrics. These HRI metrics include: (1) perceptions, attitudes, and acceptance; (2) engagement; (3) compliance; and (4) safety. A summary of these HRI metrics and their associated measures is presented in Table 2.2.

Perceptions, Attitudes, and Acceptance

Overall perceptions and attitudes toward using a robot are a major factors in determining acceptance and use (Davis 1993). To determine if rehabilitation robots will be effective tools, we must measure user perceptions and attitudes toward them. Questionnaires are a method of data collection commonly used for measuring user perceptions, attitudes, and acceptance toward robotic rehabilitation technology as they allow researchers to easily gather large amounts of data (Bartneck, Kulic et al. 2009; Heerink et al. 2010). To date, only a handful of questionnaires have been tailored and validated for studying HRI in rehabilitation robotics. These questionnaires include: (1) the Godspeed questionnaire (Bartneck, Kulic et al. 2009); (2) the Almere model (Heerink et al. 2010); (3) the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI; Ryan 1982); (4) the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire (Hart and Staveland 1988); and (5) the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) questionnaire (Bradley and Lang 1994). These questionnaires measure user perceptions toward specific robot characteristics and/or

TABLE 2.2 Summary of HRI Metrics and Measures

Measure

Description

Metric: Perceptions, Attitudes, and Acceptance

Godspeed questionnaire Questionnaire to measure a user’s overall perceptions of rehabilitation robots

Almere model

Questionnaire to measure an elderly user’s acceptance toward socially assistive robots

Intrinsic Motivation Inventory NASA-TLX questionnaire Self-Assessment Manikin

Questionnaire used to evaluate a user’s motivation level when interacting with a robot

Questionnaire used to assess a user’s physical and cognitive workload when operating a robot

Questionnaire used to assess a user’s affective reaction when interacting with a robot

Metric: Engagement

Eye gaze Utterances

User’s eye gaze toward the robot or the activity itself Number of instances a user verbally communicates with a robot or another person during the interaction

Metric: Compliance

Cooperative behaviors

Number of cooperative behaviors a user has with respect to a robot’s behaviors

Task duration

Total time a user participates in a rehabilitation task

Metric: Safety

Current measures for safety have not yet been generlized. Presently, they are designed specifically for the activity at hand. Please refer to the Customized Questionnaires category of this section for practical examples of designing for safety.

functions. Many HRI studies have also used questionnaires designed or customized by the robot designers as they need to study specific user perceptions, demographics, and applications (Kang et al. 2005; Krebs et al. 1998; Tapus, Mataric, and Scassellati 2007).

 
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