Key considerations for a more effective public sector salary system
New paradigms for public management
Ability to govern and manage
The ability to govern and manage adequately is essential for the quality, efficiency and responsiveness of public services. During the 20th century, the old and established paradigm for public management - oriented versus stability and foresight - has been challenged by new models.
Two paradigms - an ideal bureaucracy and new public management - are often perceived as alternatives and opposed to each other. Neither, however, are exclusive and the new heterogeneity of the public service means that different parts might need to be governed and managed in different ways in order to be efficient (Kiviniemi and Virtanen, 2000; Rexed, 2008). These two paradigms can therefore coexist within a public service that is able to adapt its human resource management arrangements to the organisational needs of different budget users. The Weberian ideal type is also still very relevant for countries making a transition from an authoritarian to a democratic form of governance. However, if there is a common trend in the evolution of human resource management in the public administrations among OECD member countries, then it is a paradigm shift from rule-based governance and rule obedience to managerial discretion and accountability for results.