The Skilled Helper: A Problem-Management and Opportunity-Development Approach to Helping

Preface Laying the GroundworkThe Ingredients of Successful HelpingFORMAL AND INFORMAL HELPERS: A VERY BRIEF HISTORYWHAT HELPING IS ABOUTClients with Problem Situations and Unused OpportunitiesThe Three Principal Outcome-Focused Goals of HelpingTHE INGREDIENTS OF SUCCESSFUL HELPINGThe Helping RelationshipCommunication Skills at the Service of DialogueTwo-Way Feedback Between Client and HelperThe Treatment Approach and Its Methods and TechniquesProblem Management: A Human Universal and a Common FactorDecision Making: A Psychological Universal and a Common FactorThe Beliefs-Values-Norms-Ethics-Morality Factors That Drive Human BehaviorEMBRACING AND BEFRIENDING THE UNCERTAINTIES INHERENT IN HELPINGThe Client and the Contextual Factors of the Client’s LifeThe TherapistThe Helping RelationshipThe Therapeutic DialogueTwo-Way Feedback Between Client and HelperThe Model or Method of Treatment and the Assumptions Behind ItThe Standard Problem Management Process as a Human UniversalDecision Making as a Human UniversalThe Beliefs-Values-Norms-Ethics-Morality FactorsMOVING FROM SMART TO WISE: MANAGING THE SHADOW SIDE OF HELPINGThe Helping Relationship and the Values That Drive ItTHE HELPING RELATIONSHIPThe Importance of the Relationship ItselfThe Relationship as a Means to an EndThe Relationship as a Working AllianceGetting Off to a Good StartKeeping the Client’s Point of View and Preferences Center StageThe Relationship as a Forum for RelearningRelationship FlexibilityTHE VALUES THAT DRIVE THE HELPING RELATIONSHIPValues as Tools of the TradeDetermining the Values Inherent to Successful HelpingRESPECT AS THE FOUNDATION VALUEBehaviors Showing DisrespectBehaviors Showing RespectEMPATHY AS THE PRIMARY ORIENTATION VALUEA Brief Overview of EmpathyEmpathy as a Two-Way StreetEmpathy as Radical CommitmentPROACTIVE APPRECIATION OF DIVERSITYCulture, Personal Culture, and ValuesHelper Competencies Related to Client DiversitySpecific Multicultural CompetenciesSELF-RESPONSIBILITY AS AN EMPOWERMENT- FOCUSED VALUEHelping as a Social-Influence ProcessNorms for Empowerment and Self-ResponsibilityConscientiousnessSelf-Responsibility, Self-Regulation, Self-ControlA BIAS FOR ACTION AS AN OUTCOME-FOCUSED VALUEThe Need for Behavioral ActivationAction and Discretionary ChangeReal-Life FocusSHADOW-SIDE REALITIES IN THE HELPING RELATIONSHIPHelpers’ and Clients’ FlawsIncompetent HelpersII The Therapeutic Dialogue: Communication and RelationshipBuilding Skills Empathic Presence: Tuning In and ListeningTHE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN HELPINGDIALOGUE-FOCUSED INTERACTIONS WITH CLIENTSTurn TakingConnectingMutual InfluencingCocreating OutcomesVISIBLY TUNING IN: THE IMPORTANCEOF empathic presenceNonverbal Behavior as a Channel of CommunicationAdvances in the Understanding of Nonverbal BehaviorAvoiding Myths About Nonverbal BehaviorForms of Poor ListeningEmpathic Listening: Listening to Clients’ Stories and Their Search for SolutionsPutting It All Together: Listening to the Client’s Integrated NarrativeProcessing What You Hear: The Thoughtful Search for MeaningListening to Oneself: The Helper’s Internal ConversationLISTENING TO THE KEY INGREDIENTS OF SUCCESSFUL THERAPYListening to the ClientListening to Ourselves as TherapistsListening to the RelationshipListening to the Flow of Communication and DialogueListening to the Two-Way Feedback Between Client and HelperListening to the Flow of the Method of TreatmentListening to the Decisions Being MadeListening to the Key Assumptions, Beliefs, Values, Norms, Ethical Issues, and Moral Issues in PlayTHE SHADOW side OF listening: FORMS OF distorted listeningFiltered ListeningEvaluative ListeningStereotype-Based ListeningFact-Centered Rather Than Person-Centered ListeningSympathetic ListeningInterruptingEmpathic Responding: Working at Mutual UnderstandingINTRODUCTION TO RESPONDING SKILLS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF EMPATHIC RELATIONSHIPSResponding SkillsEmpathic RelationshipsEmpathic Responding: A Wide View of EmpathyTHE THREE DIMENSIONS OF RESPONDING SKILLS: PERCEPTIVENESS, KNOW-HOW, AND ASSERTIVENESSPerceptivenessKnow-HowAssertivenessRESPONDING WITH EMPATHYThe Basic FormulaRespond Accurately to Clients’ Feelings, Emotions, and MoodsRespond Accurately to the Key Experiences, Thoughts, and Behaviors in Clients’ StoriesBECOMING COMPETENT AND CONFIDENT IN RESPONDING WITH EMPATHY: PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINESUse Empathic Responses Throughout the Helping ProcessRespond Selectively to Core Client MessagesRespond to the Context, Not Just the WordsUse Empathic Responses as a Mild Social-Influence ProcessUse Empathic Responses to Stimulate Movement Throughout the Helping ProcessUse Empathic Responses as a Way of Bridging Diversity GapsRecover from Inaccurate UnderstandingTACTICS FOR RESPONDING WITH EMPATHYGive Yourself Time to ThinkUse Short ResponsesGear Your Response to the Client, But Remain YourselfA CASE: MARA, THE CLIENT AND CARLOS, THE HELPERTHE SHADOW SIDE OF RESPONDINGNo ResponseDistracting QuestionsClichesInterpretationsAdviceParrotingAgreement and SympathyThe Art of Probing and SummarizingNUDGINGTHE ART OF PROBINGVerbal and Nonverbal PromptsDifferent Forms of ProbesUsing Questions EffectivelyGuidelines for Using ProbesThe Relationship Between Sharing Empathic Responses and Using ProbesTHE ART OF SUMMARIZING: PROVIDING FOCUS AND DIRECTIONWhen to Use SummariesGetting the Client to Provide the SummaryMARA AND CARLOS REVISITEDTHE SHADOW SIDE OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS: ESSENTIAL, BUT NOT EVERYTHINGCommunication Skills as Necessary But Not SufficientThe Helping Relationship Versus Helping TechnologiesDEVELOPING PROFICIENCY IN COMMUNICATION SKILLSFacilitating Client Self-Challenge: From New Perspectives to New BehaviorSELF-CHALLENGE: THE BASIC CONCEPTThe Goals of ChallengingTarget Areas of Self-ChallengeINVITING CLIENTS TO CHALLENGE THE BLIND SPOTS AT THE ROOT OF DYSFUNCTIONAL THINKING, EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION, AND BEHAVIORLack of AwarenessFailure to Think Things ThroughSelf-DeceptionChoosing to Stay in the DarkKnowing, Not Caring, and Failing to See ConsequencesQuestions to Uncover Blind SpotsTHEIR BLIND spots AND MOVE TO NEW PERSPECTIVESAdvanced Empathy: Capturing the Fuller Message or the Message Behind the MessageInformation SharingHelper Self-DisclosureMaking Suggestions and Giving RecommendationsStronger Medicine: ConfrontationEncouragementHelper Self-ChallengeGUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE INVITATIONS TO SELF-CHALLENGEKeep the Goals of Invitations to Client Self-Challenge in MindDon’t Force Clients to Make Decisions, But Do Provide “Choice Structure”Earn the Right to Invite Clients to Challenge ThemselvesHelp Clients Be Specific in Their Self-ChallengesBe Tentative But Not Apologetic in the Way You Invite Clients to Self-ChallengeInvite Clients to Challenge Unused Strengths Rather Than WeaknessesHelp Clients Build on Their SuccessesMake Sure That Invitations to Self-Challenge Respect Clients’ ValuesThe Wisdom of ChallengingMANAGE RELUCTANCE AND RESISTANCEReluctance: Misgivings About ChangeResistance: Reacting to CoercionGUIDELINES FOR HELPING CLIENTS MOVE BEYOND RELUCTANCE AND RESISTANCEAvoid Unhelpful Responses to Reluctance and ResistanceDevelop Productive Approaches to Dealing with Reluctance and ResistanceTHE ROLE OF NEGOTIATION IN CHALLENGENegotiation in CounselingA Beginners’ FrameworkHelping Clients Negotiate with ThemselvesThe “MUM Effect”Excuses for Not Inviting Clients to Challenge ThemselvesThe Skilled Helper Problem-Management and Opportunity- Development Approach to HelpingTHE INGREDIENTS OF SUCCESSFUL THERAPY: A REVIEWAn Introduction to the Problem- Management ProcessAN OVERVIEW OF THE STAGES OF PROBLEM MANAGEMENTImplementation: Help Clients Make It All HappenFLEXIBILITY IN THE USE OF THE PROBLEM-MANAGEMENT PROCESSClients Start and Proceed DifferentlyClients Engage in Each Stage and Task DifferentlyFlexibility Is Not Mere Randomness or ChaosSTAGES OF CHANGE AND CLIENT readiness for changeINTEGRATIVE ECLECTICISM: THE ONGOING SEARCH FOR BEST PRACTICEClient-Focused Eclecticism and IntegrationThe Problem-Management Framework as “Browser”“HOW ARE WE DOING?”-ONGOING EVALUATION OF THE HELPING PROCESSUNDERSTANDING AND DEALING WITH THE SHADOW SIDE OF HELPING MODELSNo Model or FrameworkConfusing and Needless Multiplication of Helping ModelsFads and ForgetfulnessFailure to Share the Helping ModelRigid Applications of Treatment MethodsChaos in Defining CompetenceFailure to Grow with the ProfessionThe Ethics Involved in the Training of HelpersStage I-A: Help Clients Tell Their StoriesA BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO STAGE IHow the Tasks of Stage I Pervade the Entire Helping ProcessClient-Focused AssessmentLinking to ActionTASK I-A: HELP CLIENTS TELL THEIR STORIESGUIDELINES FOR HELPING CLIENTS TELL THEIR STORIESLearn to Work with All Styles of StorytellingStart Where the Client StartsAssess the Severity of the Client’s ProblemsHelp Clients Clarify Key IssuesHelp Clients Discuss the Context of Their ConcernsHelp Clients Talk Productively About the PastHelp Clients Spot Unused OpportunitiesAs Clients Tell Their Stories, Help Them Begin to Search for Unused ResourcesHelp Clients See Every Problem as an OpportunityHELP CLIENTS MOVE INTO ACTION RIGHT FROM THE BEGINNINGHelp Clients see the Importance of Being ProactiveHelp Clients Use the Time Between Sessions ProductivelyStage I Task I-B: The Real Story Task I-C: The Right StoryTASK I-B: THE REAL STORYMARA AND CARLOS IN I-BHELP CLIENTS CHALLENGE THEMSELVES TO PARTICIPATE AS FULLY AS POSSIBLE IN THE HELPING PROCESSInvite Clients to Own Their Problems and Unused OpportunitiesInvite Clients to State Their Problems as SolvableInvite Clients to Explore Their “Problem-Maintenance Structure”Invite Clients to Move on to the Right Stage and Task of the Helping ProcessIMMEDIACY: DEALING WITH ISSUES IN THE HELPING RELATIONSHIP ITSELFRelationship-Focused ImmediacyEvent-Focused ImmediacySituations Calling for ImmediacyTHE WIDER use OF l-B: RISING TO THE CHALLENGETASK I-C: THE RIGHT STORY HELP CLIENTS WORK ON ISSUES THAT WILL ADD VALUE TO THEIR LIVESPRINCIPLES FOR HELPING CLIENTS WORK ON ISSUES THAT MAKE A DIFFERENCEDetermine Whether or Not Helping Is Called For or Should Be ContinuedIf There Is a Crisis, First Help the Client Manage the CrisisBegin with an Issue That Seems to Be Causing the Client the Most PainFocus on a Problem for Which the Benefits Will Outweigh the CostsTHE WIDER USE of I-C: MAKING THE RIGHT CHOICESAN INTRODUCTION TO STAGE IIThe Three Tasks of Stage IISolution: An Ambiguous TermTherapy: Art or Science?THE ROLE OF HOPE IN THERAPYThe Nature of HopeThe Benefits of HopeTASK II-A: help CLIENTS DISCOVER POSSIBILITIES FOR A BETTER FUTURESKILLS FOR IDENTIFYING POSSIBILITIES FOR A BETTER FUTUREHelp Clients Focus on Their “Possible Selves”Help Clients Tap into Their CreativityHelp Clients Engage in Divergent ThinkingUse Brainstorming AdaptivelyUse Future-Oriented ProbesHelp Clients Review Exemplars and Role Models as a Source of PossibilitiesCASES FEATURING POSSIBILITIES FOR A BETTER FUTUREThe Case of Brendan: Dying BetterThe Washington Family CaseStage II Task II-B: Goals, Outcomes, Impact Task II-C: CommitmentTHE POWER OF GOAL SETTINGGoals Help Clients Focus Their AttentionGoals Help Clients Mobilize Their Energy and Direct Their EffortGoals Provide Incentives for Clients to Search for Strategies to Accomplish ThemClear and Specific Goals Help Clients Increase PersistenceTASK ll-B: goals, OUTCOMES, IMPACT: HELP clients move from possibilities to choicesFLEXIBLE GUIDELINES IN HELPING CLIENTS SET GOAL FOR THEMSELVESHelp Clients Describe the Future They Want in Outcome or Accomplishment LanguageHelp Clients Move from Broad Aims to Clear and Specific GoalsHelp Clients Establish Goals That Make a DifferenceHelp Clients Formulate Realistic GoalsResources: Help clients choose goals for which the resources are availableHelp Clients Set Goals That Are PrudentHelp Clients Set Goals That Can Be SustainedHelp Clients Choose Goals That Have Some FlexibilityHelp Clients Choose Goals Consistent with Their ValuesHelp Clients Establish Realistic Time Frames for Accomplishing GoalsWHAT KIND OF CHANGE DO CLIENTS NEED AND HOW MUCH?Help Clients Distinguish Needs from WantsHelp Clients Consider Adaptive GoalsCoping as an Important GoalSecond-Order Change GoalsEMERGING GOALSTASK II-C: HELP CLIENTS COMMIT THEMSELVES- “WHAT AM I WILLING TO PAY FOR WHAT I WANT?”HELP CLIENTS COMMIT THEMSELVES TO A BETTER FUTUREEconomics: Help Clients Set Goals That Are Worth More Than They CostIncentives: Help Clients Set Appealing GoalsOwnership: Help Clients Embrace and Own the Goals They SetObstacles: Help Clients Deal with Competing AgendasSELF-EFFICACY-“I can, I WILL”The Nature of Self-EfficacyHelping Clients Develop Self-EfficacySTAGE II AND ACTIONThe Role of “Implementation Intentions” in Helping Clients ActTHE SHADOW SIDE OF GOAL SETTINGStage III: Planning the Way ForwardTHE THREE TASKS OF STAGE IIIMARA AND CARLOS REVISITED: MARA’S GOALSTASK III-A: HELP CLIENTS DEVELOP STRATEGIES FOR ACCOMPLISHING THEIR GOALSPRINCIPLES FOR HELPING CLIENTS DISCOVER VIABLE STRATEGIES FOR ACCOMPLISHING GOALSUse Brainstorming to Stimulate Clients’ ThinkingUse Frameworks for Stimulating Clients’ Thinking About StrategiesTASK III-B: HELP CLIENTS CHOOSE BEST-FIT STRATEGIESBUD’S AMAZING ODYSSEYCRITERIA FOR CHOOSING GOAL-ACCOMPLISHING STRATEGIESSpecific StrategiesEffective StrategiesRealistic StrategiesStrategies in Keeping with the Client’s ValuesA BALANCE-SHEET METHOD FOR CHOOSING STRATEGIESHELP CLIENTS LINK BEST-FIT STRATEGIES TO ACTIONTHE SHADOW SIDE OF SELECTING STRATEGIESThree PitfallsStriking a BalanceTASK III-C: HELP CLIENTS FORMULATE VIABLE PLANSThe Case of Frank: No Plan of ActionHow Plans Add Value to Clients’ Change ProgramsSHAPING THE PLAN: TWO CASESThe Case of Harriet: The Economics of PlanningThe Case of Frank RevisitedOF CONSTRUCTIVE CHANGEBuild a Planning Mentality into the Helping Process Right from the StartAdapt the Constructive-Change Process to the Style of the ClientOutline a Plan for the Client and Then Help the Client Tailor It to His or Her NeedsHelp Clients Develop Contingency PlansREADY-MADE ACTION PROGRAMSReady-Made Therapeutic Interventions: Evidence-Supported Treatments (EST)General Well-Being Programs: Nutrition, Exercise, and Stress ReductionImplementation: Making It All HappenINTRODUCTION TO IMPLEMENTATIONMARA MOVES INTO ACTIONHELP CLIENTS MOVE FROM PLANNING TO ACTION: PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATIONHelp Clients Overcome ProcrastinationHelp Clients Avoid Imprudent ActionHelp Clients Identify Possible Obstacles to and Resources for Implementing PlansHelp Clients Find Incentives and Rewards for Sustained ActionHelp Clients Develop Action-Focused Self-ContractsSOCIAL SUPPORT AND THE IMPORTANCE OF CHALLENGEChallenging RelationshipsTwo-Way FeedbackThe ChecklistHelpers as Reluctant Agents of ChangeClient Inertia: Reluctance to Get StartedEntropy: The Tendency of Things to Fall ApartRESILIENCE: PEOPLE’S ABILITY TO HOLD THEMSELVES TOGETHER, BOUNCE BACK, AND GROWHelp Clients Tap into Their ResilienceOutcome Versus Process ResilienceFactors Contributing to ResiliencePOSTTRAUMATIC GROWTHGETTING ALONG WITHOUT A HELPER: A STRIKING CASECHOOSING NOT TO CHANGE
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