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Fillers for Polymer Applications


I Fundamentals and Principles Particulate Fillers, Selection, and Use in Polymer CompositesDefinitionIntroductionThe Main Important Characteristics of Particulate FillersCostChemical CompositionSurface ChemistrySpecific Gravity (Density)HardnessMorphology (Particle Size and Shape)Particle SizeSpecific Surface Area (SSA)Particle ShapeParticle PackingThermal PropertiesSpecific HeatThermal Conductivity and DiffusivityCoefficient of Thermal ExpansionThermal StabilityElectrical PropertiesConductivityOptical PropertiesUse of Particulate Fillers in Polymer CompositesThermoplasticsElastomersThermosetsFuture DirectionsCross-ReferencesReferencesSurface Modifiers for Use with Particulate FillersDefinitionIntroductionGeneral PrinciplesMethods of Using Surface ModifiersCoating LevelDetermination of the Amount of Additive and Its DistributionSurface Modifier TypesCarboxylic Acids and Related CompoundsSaturated Fatty AcidsEffects of Fatty Acid Coating in CompositesUnsaturated Carboxylic Acids and Related CompoundsDimaleimidesPolymeric Acids and AnhydridesAcid Functional Saturated PolymersAcid Functional Unsaturated PolymersOrganosilicon Compounds GeneralFiller Types Susceptible to Silane TreatmentCoating TechniquesReaction of Organo-Silanes with Filler SurfacesApplications of Organo-SilanesVinylMethacrylEpoxyAminoSulfur FunctionalOligomeric SilanesExamples of Silane Coupling Agent Effects in Filled PolymersElastomersThermosetsThermoplasticsOther Organometallic Coupling Agents (Organo-Titanates and Zirconates)Organo-Titanates (Titanates)Aluminates and Zirco-AluminatesPhosphates and BoratesConclusions and Future DirectionsCross-ReferencesReferencesParticulate Fillers in ThermoplasticsDefinitionIntroductionFactorsComponent PropertiesCompositionStructureInterfacial InteractionsFiller CharacteristicsParticle Size and DistributionSpecific Surface Area, Surface EnergyParticle ShapeOther CharacteristicsStructureCrystalline Matrices, NucleationSegregation, AttritionAggregationOrientation of Anisotropic ParticlesInterfacial Interactions, InterphaseType and Strength of InteractionInterphase FormationWettingSurface ModificationNonreactive TreatmentCouplingFunctionalized PolymersSoft InterlayerMicromechanical DeformationsPropertiesRheological PropertiesStiffnessProperties Measured at Large DeformationsOther PropertiesConclusionsCross-ReferencesReferencesCompounding of Particulate-Filled ThermoplasticsDefinitionScope of Compounding RequirementsPrinciples of Mixing with Filled PolymersAgglomerate BreakdownMechanism of MixingRheology of Filled PolymersConstructional Features of Compounding Machinery for Filled PolymersFunctional StagesPremixing ProcessesHigh-Intensity Melt Mixing TechnologiesAncillary Compounding EquipmentIn-Process Compound CharacterizationFuture PerspectivesFurther ReadingParticulate Fillers in Thermoset Plastics gProcessing of Thermoset CompositesEffect of Particulate Fillers on PropertiesCost SavingExotherm Control and Shrinkage ReductionStiffness (Modulus)Thermal ExpansionThermal ConductivityFlame RetardancyAestheticsAbrasion ResistanceToughnessRheology of Pre-Cure MixTransparencyParticulate Filler Use by Polymer Type Unsaturated Polyester Resins (UPR)Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)Phenolic ResinsEpoxy ResinsPolyurethanesRecycling and SustainabilityCross-ReferencesReferencesParticulate Fillers in ElastomersElastomeric Compounds and Their Important PropertiesThe Role of Fillers in Elastomeric CompoundsImportant Filler PropertiesSize and Specific Surface AreaShape and StructureTransient StructurePermanent (Persistent) StructureDispersionFiller to Elastomer AdhesionEffect of Filler Properties on Elastomer PerformanceSome Effects of Particle SizeSome Effects of Filler DispersionThe Effects of Filler to Elastomer AdhesionThe Effects of Filler StructureDynamic Properties of Filled ElastomersTire ApplicationsTire Treads, Green Tire, Precipitated Silica Versus Carbon Black, Payne Effect, Rolling Resistance, etc.Silica Versus Carbon Black in Tire TreadsSpecialist ElastomersFuture DirectionsCross-ReferencesReferencesFurther ReadingII Natural Mineral Based Particulate FillersCalcium Carbonate FillersBasic Properties Relevant to Filler ApplicationsGround (Natural) Calcium Carbonates (GCC)GCC ProductionGCC SpecificationPolymer Applications of GCCsThermoplasticsThermosetsElastomersPrecipitated Calcium Carbonates (PCCs)PCC in PolymersEnvironmental Impact and Sustainability of GCC and PCC ProductionFuture DirectionCross-ReferencesReferencesChina Clay or KaolinKaolin Occurrence and ExtractionPropertiesUses in PolymersCalcined ClaysFlash Calcined ClaysUses of Calcined Clays in PolymersMetakaolinConventional Calcined ClaysReferencesMicasMineralogyApplicationsPhlogopite MicaMuscovite MicaSurface-Treated Mica Minerals for Polyamide 6Surface Treatment of MicaMicas in Other PolymersReferencesTalcsOccurrenceExtraction and ProcessingProperties of TalcGrades of TalcPolymer Uses of TalcRecycling IssuesFuture ProspectsCross-ReferencesFurther ReadingWollastonitesWollastonite MineralogyAvailabilityPropertiesModern Analytical Description of HAR and LAR Wollastonite Particle-Size DistributionsSurface Treatment of SilicatesWollastonite in PolypropyleneWollastonite in PolyamideWollastonite in PUR R-RIM SystemsWollastonite in Epoxy SystemsWollastonite in Phenolic ResinsFundamentally, Friction Pads/Linings Fulfill Three Tasks SafetyConvenienceEconomyResultsPhysical Results of the Mixing ProcessesPhysical Results of the PadsPassenger Car Friction ResultsPad WearDisk WearWollastonite in FluoroelastomersReferencesFeldspar and SyenitesFeldspar MineralogyAvailabilityPropertiesApplicationsPaints and CoatingsAntiblockingLight and Thermal Management in Agricultural FilmsDental CompoundsReferencesMagnetiteProperty OverviewChemistrySurface ChemistrySafetyDensityMagnetic PropertiesInduction HeatingElectrical PropertiesThermal Properties Specific Heat CapacityConductivity and DiffusivityCoefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)Microwave PropertiesRadiation BlockingSources of MagnetiteOther PropertiesMechanical PropertiesLong-Term Polymer StabilityAbrasivenessFuture DirectionsReferencesIII Synthetic Particulate Fillers Carbon Black as a Polymer FillerCarbon Black Manufacturing Principles of the Carbon Black Formation(A) Thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons in the absence of oxygen(B) Thermal-oxidative decomposition (incomplete combustion)The Furnace Black ProcessDual-Phase BlacksSurface-Modified BlacksUnconventional SourcesCarbon Black Properties Terminology of the Morphological PropertiesCarbon Black MicrostructurePrimary Particle Size and PorosityAggregate Size and Shape and Carbon Black StructureSurface PropertiesSolid ContaminantsElectrical and Thermal ConductivityTypical Properties of Filler-Grade Carbon BlacksCarbon Black in PolymersReinforcement of Elastomers Carbon Black and Elastomer InteractionsInteraction Between the Elastomer MoleculesInteraction Between Carbon Black and Elastomer MatrixInteraction Between the Carbon Black Filler ParticlesThe Effect of the Carbon Black Properties on the Elastomer ReinforcementCarbon Black LoadingParticle SizeSurface ActivityCarbon Black StructureDynamic Properties of Filled ElastomersReinforcement MechanismsCarbon Black for PigmentationCarbon Black for UV ProtectionDispersionFuture DirectionsCross-ReferencesReferencesPrecipitated and Fumed Silicas and Related ProductsPrecipitated Silicas and Silicates GeneralProductionPropertiesSafetySustainabilityPolymer ApplicationsEnergy or Green Tire TechnologyMicroporous Polymer ProductsRheology Control AdditivesFuture DirectionsFumed Silica GeneralProductionPropertiesApplicationsSafetySustainabilityFuture DirectionsSilica Fume GeneralPropertiesApplicationsSafetySustainabilityFuture ProspectsSilica GelsProductionPropertiesApplicationsRheology Control Agents (Applicable to Both Fumed and Precipitated Silicas)Cross-ReferencesReferencesIV Organic Particulate FillersFillers from Organic SourcesGeneralProducts Obtained by Size Reduction of Plant Material Wood FlourProductionApplicationsProducts Obtained by Extraction of Particulate Material from Plant MatterStarchProductionUse in PolymersCelluloseLigninProteinsRice HullsProductionCross-ReferencesReferencesV Speciality Particulate FillersMineral Filler Fire RetardantsFire Retardant DevelopmentMineral Filler Fire RetardantsTypes of Mineral Filler Fire RetardantsMetal HydroxidesHydromagnesite and Huntite MixturesCarbonatesBoehmiteMode of ActionThermal Analysis Techniques ThermogravimetryDifferential Thermal Analysis and Differential Scanning CalorimetryFire Retardant Effects of Mineral FillersQuantifying the Fire Retardant EffectsOther Considerations AfterglowSmoke SuppressionEthylene-vinyl Acetate-Mineral Filler CompositesApplicationsTest MethodsLimiting Oxygen IndexBunsen Burner Test UL 94Cone CalorimetryMicroscale Measurement of Heat ReleaseEnvironmental SustainabilityConclusionsReferencesThermally Conductive Additives TheoryMechanisms of Heat TransportHeat Conductive Thermoplastic Polymer Compounds in ComparisonHeat Conductive Thermoset Polymer Compounds Based on Epoxy ResinViscosityElectrical PropertiesMechanical PropertiesComparison of an Aluminum Heat Sink with an EP/Alumosilicate Compound Heat Sink of the Same GeometryLimits of Heat Conductivity in PlasticsThermal Conductive AdhesivesRange of Thermal ConductivitiesReferencesCarbon Black for Electrically Conductive Polymer ApplicationsConductive Carbon Black Properties and ManufactureMaterial Characteristics Describing Conductive Carbon BlackIntrinsic Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Carbon BlackManufacture of Conductive Carbon BlackCarbon Black-Polymer Composites The Insulator-Conductor TransitionCarbon Black Properties, Critical Carbon Black Concentration, and Mechanical Compound PropertiesPolymer Nature and PropertiesCompound ProcessingConduction Mechanisms in Carbon Black-Polymer CompositesPercolation ModelsCross-ReferencesReferencesGraphitic Carbon Powders for Polymer ApplicationsManufacturing Processes and Properties of Graphitic Carbon Powders ProductionPropertiesPurityCrystallinityTextureParticle Size and ShapeSurface PropertiesGraphite-Filled Polymer Composite ProcessingConduction Mechanisms in Graphite Polymer CompositesProperties and Applications of Graphite-Filled Polymer Composites LubricationThermal ConductivityElectrical ConductivityInfrared ShieldingMechanical PropertiesEMI ShieldingGas BarrierFlame RetardantFuture DirectionsCross-ReferencesReferencesAntiblock AdditivesKey InformationLight and Thermal Management in Agricultural FilmsReferencesSustainable and Recycled Particulate Fillers Linear and Circular EconomiesSustainabilityRenewabilityRecyclingSustainability (Renewability) IssuesEffect of Particulate Fillers on Composite SustainabilitySustainable SourcingPolysaccharidesStarchCelluloseLigninWood FlourGeneralApplicationsRice Hull AshCarbon BlacksUse of Particulate Fillers to Improve SustainabilityFiller RecyclingTypes of Filler RecyclingAdvantages and LimitationsMain Sources for Recycled Powders from Other Areas Potentially Useful for Filler ApplicationsGlassCommercial Glass (Soda-Lime Glass)Borosilicate Glass (Also Known as Pyrex)Glass FiberLead GlassPower Station AshRice Hull AshSpent Oil Refinery CatalystsPrecipitated Silica from Geothermal Power PlantsSilica Fume (Microsilica) (CAS Number 69012-64-2, EINECS Number 273-761-1)Recovery and Recycling of Particulate Fillers from Polymer CompositesRecovery of Carbon BlackProperties of Typical Pyrolysis BlacksCurrent and Future Applications for Pyrolysis BlacksCalcium Carbonate Recovery and RecyclingRecycling in the Form of a Filled PolymerCarbon Black Recycling in Elastomer CompoundsGranulationDevulcanizationCarbonate Filler Recycling in PVCCarbonate Recycling in Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) Carpet BackingTalc Recycling in PolyolefinsSurface Modification and Coupling AgentsFuture ProspectsCross-ReferencesReferencesNanofillersGeneralParticles with Three Nano DimensionsNanoplatesNanoclaysStiffness and Heat Distortion TemperatureGas Barrier PropertiesFlame RetardancyOther Layer SilicatesOther Nanoplate MaterialsGraphiteGrapheneNanostarch PlateletsNanofibersNanocelluloseCarbon Nanofibers and TubesCarbon NanofibersCarbon NanotubesAsbestosHalloysite (CAS: 1332-58-7)Cross-ReferencesReferences
 
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