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Economics
Essentials of Macroeconomics
A short course of lectures
«Essentials of Macroeconomics»
Justification
The Labor Market
Inflation
The macroeconomic variables
Differences in inflation under flexible exchange rates
Relation between nominal interest rate, real interest rate and inflation
The IS curve with inflation
Consumption
The dynamics from the short to the long run
The Big Mac Index
Circular flow - circulation of money
Problems with CPI
Real interest rates, nominal interest rate and expected inflation
The classical model of exchange rate determination
The neo-classical synthesis
How not to justify Say’s Law
The marginal product of labor and capital
Expected inflation
Investment demand
Mundell-Fleming model
Aggregate supply
The AD-curve at a given point in time
The problem with the Keynesian model
Supply and demand
Labor market
Labor Market
Interest rate determination
The quantity theory of money
IS-curve
The central bank has complete control over money supply
Equilibrium analysis
The IS-LM model with flexible exchange rates
Aggregate demand
Definition
Inflation in Germany
Demand for labor
The Phillips curve
The Government, Rest of the World and the financial markets
Determination of all endogenous variables
Aggregate demand with inflation
Components of GDP
Exchange rate
Determination of GDP in the cross model
The aggregate production function
Reversed Say’s Law
Factors affecting E*
The price level
The AS curve
Exchange rate determination
Changes in the exchange rate
Simultaneous determination of Y and R in the IS-LM model
Aggregate demand and Say’s Law
Central bank overnight interest rate
Equilibrium in the labor market
The exchange rate
Definition
Equilibrium in both the goods and in the money market
Commercial banks
The AS-AD-model
What is money and what is not money
The real interest rate
Differences in inflation under fixed exchange rates
Other interest rates
Trade and tourism
Money illusion
Unemployment and hours worked are directly related
Central bank and monetary policy
Determination of other variables
Trade and exchange rate
Economic functions of money
Money market diagram
The multiplier effect
Demand for money and the interest rate
The consumption function
Nominal wages
Government revenue, government spending and net exports
Currency inside banks is not money
Inflation in Sweden
Price Inflation
Monetary base and the supply of money
Money
Aggregate supply and the AS curve
Demand for money
The AS-AD model with inflation
Money and banks
The complete Keynesian model
Investment and the exchange rate
Modeling a firm and the concept value added
The IS-curve in the AS-AD model
The augmented Phillips curve
Main result
Production function and Growth
Inflation
Capital Flows
Wages and income
Overnight target rates and inflation
The Labor Market
Expected depreciation
Overnight rates and interest rates with longer maturity
The components of GDP
The price level and the quantity theory of money
Macroeconomic models
IS-LM-model
The AS-AD model and inflation
Aggregate demand
Real wage
Exchange rate determination and the Mundell-Fleming model
Growth theory
The investment function in the IS-LM model
Savings
Two types of money
Developments around 1960
SAS, LAS, and AD
The IS-LM model with inflation
Equilibrium in the money market
The Labor Market
The basic assumption
The money market with inflation
The open economy
The AD curve
Endogenous growth theory
The law of one price
Prices and price level
The money market
Aggregate demand in the cross model
Central banks
Demand for money and GDP
Real GDP
Overnight interest rates
The Keynesian model
Aggregate demand
The market for overnight loans
Determination of P and Y
IS-LM diagram
The classical model and the long-term Phillips curve
Monetary policy
Household savings
Supply and demand for the foreign currency
How commercial banks "create money"
Monetary base
The assumptions of the AS-AD model
The yield curve
Interest rate, consumption and investment
Interest rates between currency areas
The consumption function
Investment
Market interest rates
How much money can banks create?
Money, definition
Adjustments to the Keynesian models when wages are no longer constant
Wage inflation
Interest rates and inflation
Price index
Capital flows
Nominal wage level
Interest rate
Interest rate parity
AS-AD in the Keynesian and the classical model
The AD curve is the aggregate demand
Exchange rate systems
Monetary policy = change in money supply
Gross domestic product
PPP
Supply of money
The Labor Market
From short to long run
Effective exchange rate
Common assumptions
Determination of other variables
The problem with the IS-LM model
The AD curve over time
Definition
Nominal wages
The classical growth theory
Modeling expected depreciation
Overnight interest rates targets and money supply
The long-run Phillips curve
Circular flow - circulation of goods
Aggregate supply
The consumption function in the IS-LM model
Wages
Capital
Full employment
Interest rates within in the same currency area
The rest of the world in the cross model
Unemployment classification
Components of GDP in numbers 200x
The money market and price changes
The dynamics from the short to the long run
The euro against the US dollar
Results
Aggregate demand
GDP is a flow!
The circular flow - a more detailed version
How the AS-AD model solves the problem
The classical model
Separation of growth and fluctuation
Firms in the circular flow
Determination of all the endogenous variables in the AS-AD model
Four different measures of GDP
Relationship between the interest rate and the bond price
Consumer Price Index, CPI
The equations of the AS-AD model
Money, wealth and income
The government in the cross model
Price level and time
The goods market and aggregate demand
Purchasing power
The AS-AD model with inflation
Exchange rate
Consumption and GDP
Determination of all the variables in the classical model
GDP, and Say’s Law
Price level
The neo-classical growth model
The IS-LM model under fixed exchange rates
The labor in the cross model
The circular flow - simple version
The money market
SAS-LAS-AD model of the neo-classical synthesis
NAIRU
Prices and inflation
The goods and the money market in the AS-AD model
Say’s Law
Aggregate supply
The LM curve
Labor supply and labor demand in the Keynesian model
Nominal and real interest rates
The LM curve with inflation
The Phillips curve
Calculating interest rates on a yearly basis
Exchange rate systems
Definition
The various Phillips curves
The supply of labor
Keynesian cross model
Growth
Growth Theories
Total savings
There is just one interest rate
The rest of the world as one country
Determination of L in the cross model
Private sector in the circular flow
The LM-curve in the AS-AD model
About the various models
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