Essential microbiology for wound care

Introduction to wound microbiologyWhat is microbiology?Can all microorganisms cause disease in humans?How humans are protected from infection: the immune systemWhat is non-specific immunity?What is specific immunity?ConclusionFurther readingReferencesMicrobiology: the basicsIntroduction to the basics of microbiologyDifferent groups of microorganismsGrowth and reproduction of bacteriaBacterial growth in the laboratoryHow does a microorganism cause wound infection?ConclusionFurther readingReferencesCollection, transport, and laboratory processing of wound, tissue, and bone samplesIntroduction to infected wound sample collection and processingDiagnosis of wound infectionSample collectionSampling the woundSample typesTransport of specimens to the laboratoryStorage of samplesLaboratory processing of wound samplesEnvironmental conditions required for bacterial growthFacultative anaerobic bacteriaGeneral purpose mediaSelective culture mediaBacterial growthBacterial identification and antibiotic sensitivity testingBiochemical identification of bacterial isolatesPerforming an antibiotic sensitivity testNon-culture methods used to identify pathogens in woundsThe polymerase chain reactionPCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresisFurther readingReferencesAcute versus chronic wounds: microbiological differencesIntroduction to the microbiological differences between acute and chronic woundsClassification of wounds and wound typesAcute wounds: the basicsChronic woundsArterial and venous ulcersDiabetic ulcersMicrobiology of acute and chronic woundsSampling the wound: quantitative versus qualitative microbiologyFactors affecting microbial growthOxygen insufficiencyMicrobiological aspects of burnsFungal infections in the diabetic footThe role of fungi in chronic woundsConclusionReferencesWound pathogensIntroduction to wound pathogensNormal flora of the skinCommon wound pathogensStaphylococcus aureusStreptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci)Other streptococciPseudomonas aeruginosaColiform bacilliAnaerobic organismsClostridium perfringensOther anaerobic bacteriaRarer pathogens and associated infectionsCutaneous mycobacterial infectionErythema chronicum migransFurther readingReferencesUnderstanding biofilmsIntroduction to biofilmsBackgroundEvidence of biofilms in woundsBiofilm developmentThe role of extracellular matrixImmune evasion by microbial cells within mature biofilmsDiagnosing wound biofilmsTreatment and prevention of biofilms in woundsPrevention of attachmentInterference with quorum sensingDisruption of an established biofilmConclusionReferencesAntimicrobial agents used in wound careIntroduction to antimicrobial agents used in wound careBacteriostatic versus bactericidal activity of antimicrobial agentsMethods for testing antimicrobial agentsFactors affecting MIC/MBCDisc susceptibility testingTherapeutic monitoringSystemic treatment strategies in wound careTypes of topical antimicrobialsDifferent forms of silverCadexomer iodinePolyhexamethylene biguanideOctenidine dihydrochlorideAlternate forms of antibacterial agentsPlants and plant oilsConclusionReferencesDressings used in wound careIntroduction to dressings used in wound careWound bed preparationSymptom managementControlling bioburden: dressings for wound debridementDressings for autolytic debridementDressings for enzymatic debridementDressings for biosurgical debridementDressings for mechanical debridementControlling bacterial burden: antimicrobial dressingsDressings for exudating wounds (regulation of moisture balance)Polyurethane foam dressingsNegative pressure wound therapyDressings for malodorous woundsActivated charcoal dressingsDressings to alleviate wound painConclusionFurther readingReferencesInfection prevention and controlIntroduction to infection prevention and controlHealthcare-associated infectionsThe role of the wound in HCAICurrent problems including costs of managementPersonal protective equipmentAseptic technique'Clean' techniques for chronic woundsScreening for healthcare-associated infectionsFuture problem organismsReferencesTreatment strategies for wound infectionManagement of wound infectionWound infectionTypes of woundsSurgical site infectionAntimicrobials for infected woundsAntibiotics in wound managementDebridement and cleansingConclusionReferencesFuture of wound careIntroduction to the future of wound careDeveloping products and techniques that speed up wound healingDeveloping products and techniques that reduce scarringConclusionReferences
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