Sustainable Tourism as a Social Measure
Swarbrooke (1999: 13) defines sustainable tourism as “tourism which is economically viable, but does not destroy the resources on which the future tourism will depend, notably the physical environment and the social fabric of the host community.” This definition highlights three main points that characterize truly sustainable tourism as opposed to mass or “3s” tourism. First, sustainable tourism should respect and protect the natural environment and natural resources. Second, it should ensure a good relationship between the local community and tourists. Third, tourism companies should be respectful of the local population, which is the source of their workforce.
Relations between Tourists, Tourism Service Providers, and Local Residents
The arrival of tourists and the development of tourism in a given destination have significant economic, environmental, and sociocultural impacts on host communities and their quality of life, regardless of occupation (Bohdanowicz and Zientara, 2009; Jamal and Getz, 1995; Jonhston and Tyrrell, 2005; Yu et al., 2011). The social well-being of local residents may be proportional to, or in conflict with, industry goals (Mason and Cheyne, 2000). On the one hand, local populations benefit from jobs and tax revenues related to tourism (Bohdanowicz and Zientara, 2009; Haralambopolous and Pizam, 1996). On the other hand, tourism can bring related negative externalities.