Thugs and thieves : the differential etiology of violence

PREFACEWhat We Don't Know About ViolenceTHE PROBLEMMixed Results on “Offense Specialization”Doubts About the Assumption that Chronic Offenders = Violent OffendersTHE LIKELY DIFFERENTIAL ETIOLOGY OF VIOLENCELogic, Language, and Conventional NormsThe Distribution of Violent and Nonviolent CrimeHow Violent Offenders Are DifferentDevelopment, Socialization, and LearningRoutine Activities, Criminal Opportunity, and EcologyOUR TASKThe Nature of the Violence—Antisociality RelationshipMethodological ChallengesPessimism About Prediction of ViolenceOUR APPROACH, GOALS, AND PURPOSESECTION 1 Good Prospects in the Differential Etiology of Violence. Logic and ReasoningThe Development of the Violent PersonTHE DEVELOPMENT OF VIOLENT BEHAVIORStability and Continuity of AggressionChild EffectsHuman SociabilityTheory of MindAverage Expectable EnvironmentThe Basics of LearningParental SocializationStages, Challenges and MilestonesSensitive PeriodsEmotionality, Emotion Understanding, and Emotion RegulationNegative EmotionalityEmotion UnderstandingEmotion RegulationGOOD PROSPECTSIntelligence and CrimeVerbal AbilityExecutive FunctionsAcademic Achievement, School Factors, and ViolenceAttachmentParental Warmth and RejectionMaltreatmentThe Association Between Abuse and DelinquencyMechanisms in the Association Between Abuse and ViolenceMechanisms in the Association Between Abuse and Violence: LearningMechanisms in the Association Between Abuse and Violence: CNS InjuryMechanisms in the Association Between Abuse and Violence: School ProblemsMechanisms in the Association Between Abuse and Violence: Peer Problems and Social RelationshipsMechanisms in the Association Between Abuse and Violence: Negative EmotionalityMechanisms in the Association Between Abuse and Violence: Emotion RegulationMechanisms in the Association Between Abuse and Violence: Psychological SequelaeMechanisms in the Association Between Abuse and Violence: Trauma and DissociationCONCLUSIONExploring Why Motivation, Context, and Violent OffendingMOTIVATIONPovertyPoverty, Frustration, and EmotionCOMMUNITY CONTEXT AND CRIMECommunity Concentrated DisadvantageSocial Disorganization and CrimeNeighborhood Ties and Collective EfficacyNeighborhood Violence and SubcultureDRUGS AND ALCOHOLDrugs and CrimeDrugs and ViolenceCONCLUSIONSECTION 2 The Differential Etiology of Violence Developmental FactorsIntelligence, Executive Function, and ViolenceINTELLIGENCE AND VIOLENCEVerbal Ability and ViolencePIQ > VIQ Intelligence DiscrepancyExecutive Function and ViolenceIntelligence and Violent vs. Nonviolent OffendingMETHODExclusions and InclusionsFINDINGS Full Scale IQVerbal Ability and Violent BehaviorPerformance Intelligence (PIQ)Deviation Scores (PIQ > VIQ)Executive FunctionGender DifferencesStudy QualitySample SizeViolent vs. Nonviolent Offenders: Quality ControlTemporal OrderAcademic Achievement as a Potential ConfoundControl for Socioeconomic StatusCONTROLS FOR PARENT FACTORS AND PARENTINGCONCLUSIONSAcademic Achievement, Other Educational Factors, and Violent BehaviorAcademic AchievementReadingMathematicsSchool AttachmentParent EducationLearning DisabilitySchool ProblemsAcademic AttainmentMETHODFINDINGSFindings: Academic AchievementMULTIVARIATE MODELS: ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTAcademic Achievement: Control for IncomeAcademic Achievement: Control for Parent EducationAcademic Achievement: Temporal Order and Behavioral PropensityAcademic Achievement: Violent vs. Nonviolent OffendingFindings: ReadingFindings: Mathematics AchievementFindings: School AttachmentMultivariate Analyses of School AttachmentSchool Attachment: Control for Academic AchievementSchool Attachment: Control for Parent EducationSchool Attachment: Control for Economic FactorsAttachment to School: Violent vs. Nonviolent OllendingFindings: Parent EducationFindings: Learning Problems and Learning DisabilityFindings: School ProblemsFindings: Academic AttainmentCONCLUSIONSAttachment, Bonds to Parents, Physical Aggression, and ViolenceAttachment and ViolenceMETHODSFINDINGSParental Loss and Separation and Violent BehaviorAttachment Categories: The Strange SituationAttachment ScalesFindings on Measures of Parental BondingCaregiver SensitivityAttachment and the Differential Etiology of ViolenceAttachment and Nonviolent OffendingComparing Coefficients for Viofent and Nonviofent OffendingComparing Attachment in Violent vs. Nonviolent OffendersAdd Health DataCONCLUSIONSParental Warmth and Rejection in the Etiology of ViolenceLow Parental Warmth and Antisocial BehaviorLow Parental Warmth and Violent BehaviorLow Parental Warmth and Chronic Negative EmotionalityLow Parental Warmth and Emotion RegulationParental Rejection and Children’s AngerLow Parental Warmth and the Development of CallousnessResearch on Warmth and Antisocial BehaviorStatus of Research on Parental Warmth/Rejection and ViolenceModel Specification ProblemThe Child Effects ProblemAbuse as a Potential ConfoundInteractionsProtective effectsParental Rejection Exacerbates the Effects of Other Risk FactorsMaternal vs. Paternal Warmth and RejectionViolent vs. Nonviolent OffendingMETHODSRESULTSSummary of Findings on ViolenceMultivariate StudiesStudies Controlling lor Child EllectsStudies Accounting lor AbuseInteraction EffectsGender, Warmth, Rejection, and ViolenceMaternal vs. Paternal Warmth and RejectionThe Differential Etiology of ViolenceCONCLUSIONSAbuse Victimization, Trauma, and the Differential Etiology of ViolenceOVERVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON ABUSE AND VIOLENCEPhysical Abuse, Harsh Parenting, and Antisocial Behavior in VictimsSexual Abuse and Antisocial Behavior in VictimsNeglect and Antisocial Behavior in VictimAbuse, Alcohol, and Drug UseChildhood Sexual Victimization and Substance AbuseAlcohol Problems as a Mediator of the Association Between Abuse and ViolenceDrug Problems as a Mediator of the Association Between Abuse and ViolenceMETHODFINDINGSMixed Types of AbusePhysical AbuseNeglectSexual AbuseTraumaModel SpecificationControl for Nonviolent OffendingAbuse, Parental Rejection, and ViolenceControlling for Child EffectsFindings: Studies Controlling for Child EffectsMODEL “OVERSPECIFICATION”DISCUSSIONSECTION 3 The Differential Etiology of Violence. Motivation and ContextThe Role of Poverty in the Differential Etiology of ViolencePoverty and ViolenceMediating FactorsPoverty and the Differential Etiology of ViolenceMETHODFINDINGSDirect TestsMultivariate AnalysesMultivariate: Control for ParentingMultivariate: Control for Community FactorsAnalysis of National Youth Survey DataCONCLUSIONSNeighborhoods, Culture, and Violent CrimeREVIEW: COMMUNITY FACTORS AND VIOLENCEMediating FactorsMETHODFINDINGSOverview and “Vote Count”Magnitude of EffectsMultivariate AnalysesControl for Concentrated DisadvantageQualitative ResearchQualitative Research and Violent SubculturesCommunity: Conditioned by Collective Efficacy, Trust in the Police, and Fear of RetaliationCONCLUSIONSAlcohol, Drugs, and Violent vs. Nonviolent CrimeALCOHOL, DRUGS, VIOLENCE, AND NONVIOLENT CRIMEMETHODFINDINGSAlcohol ConsumptionAlcohol Abuse/Heavy UseAlcohol IntoxicationAlcohol AvailabilityIllicit DrugsUndifferentiated Drug UseHeroin/Opiates“Other” DrugsAddressing Temporal OrderCONCLUSIONSSECTION 4 Implications for Research and Policy Summary of Findings and Recommendations for Future ResearchGENERAL RECOMMENDATIONSMethods for Testing the Differential Etiology of ViolenceOperationalization of ViolenceComparing CoefficientsModee “Overspecification”Developmental TimingComplex Relationships Among ConstructsMagnitudeOVERVIEW OF THE FINDINGSSPECIFIC CONSTRUCTSIntelligence and Executive Functioning: Findings and Research NeedsEducation Factors: Findings and Research NeedsAttachment and Parental Sensitivity: Findings and Research NeedsParental Warmth and Rejection: Findings and Research NeedsAbuse and Trauma: Findings and Research NeedsPoverty: Findings and Research NeedsCommunities and Culture: Findings and Research NeedsDrugs and Alcohol: Findings and Research NeedsTheoretical Conclusions and Recommended Policies for Strengthening Violence PreventionTHE TIME IS RIGHTDEVELOPMENT AND CRIME PREVENTION REVISITEDINTELLIGENCE AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING: POLICY IMPLICATIONSEDUCATION FACTORS: POLICY IMPLICATIONSATTACHMENT AND PARENTAL SENSITIVITY, PARENTAL WARMTH, AND REJECTION: POLICY IMPLICATIONSFoster CareABUSE AND TRAUMA: POLICY IMPLICATIONSPrevention of AbuseEarly Interventions with Abusive FamiliesTreatment for Abused ChildrenPOVERTY: POLICY IMPLICATIONSCOMMUNITIES: POLICY IMPLICATIONSCommunities that CareOperation Weed and SeedDRUGS AND ALCOHOL: POLICY IMPLICATIONSHOLISTIC MEDICINEMultisystemic TherapyThe Social Development ProjectPUBLIC OPINION AND THE POLITICS OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM
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