COMMUNITY CONTEXT AND CRIME
Criminological data indicate that crime is not randomly distributed across space. Rather, scholars conclude that criminal and deviant behaviors tend to cluster in neighborhoods that are frequently characterized by multiple forms of disadvantage (Sampson, 2006). In one of the earliest studies to employ a spatial analysis of “calls for service” data, Sherman, Gartin, and Buerger (1989) found that about 50% of calls to the police in one year in Minneapolis came from just 3% of locales in the city. Furthermore, they report that predatory crimes are especially concentrated, with robbery calls coming from just 2.2% of places (addresses and intersections), auto theft calls coming from 2.7% of places, and rape calls coming from 1.2% of places. Their data indicate that a few neighborhoods gave rise to the vast majority of crime in the city. This conclusion has been reached in other studies as well (e.g., Kubrin & Weitzer, 2003b; Morenoff, Sampson, & Raudenbush, 2001).