Performance Intelligence (PIQ)

While performance intelligence was not expected to distinguish violent from nonviolent offenders, we can see in Table 4.1 that a significant majority of studies (7 out of 9) have reported that PIQ is negatively associated with violence (and in 3 of these studies, the PoC was statistically significant). Furthermore, in 14 out of 17 studies of offenders, violent offenders had lower PIQ scores than nonviolent offenders, with almost half of the studies (k = 8) having a PoC that were statistically significant. This is strong evidence that PIQ, like VIQ, is negatively associated with violent behavior and may also distinguish violent from nonviolent offenders.

Table 4.2 Summary of Comparison-Level Findings Related to Measures

of Intelligence and Violent and Nonviolent Offending

Summary of COMPARISONS

Independent Variable Category

Number of Comparisons

О

©

X

Full Scale IQ

Violent Nonviolent Violent vs.

Nonviolent

  • 33
  • 5
  • 47
  • 2
  • 1
  • 11
  • 2
  • 0
  • 2
  • 14
  • 2
  • 13
  • 15
  • 2
  • 21

Verbal Intelligence

(VIQ)

Violent Nonviolent Violent vs. Nonviolent

  • 116
  • 15
  • 71
  • 16
  • 5
  • 14
  • 11
  • 0
  • 1
  • 46
  • 5
  • 26
  • 43
  • 5
  • 30

Performance

Intelligence (PIQ)

Violent Nonviolent Violent vs. Nonviolent

  • 15
  • 2
  • 24
  • 1
  • 2
  • 4
  • 2
  • 0
  • 1
  • 6
  • 0
  • 8
  • 8
  • 0
  • 11

Deviation Score (PIQ—VIQ)

Violent Nonviolent Violent vs. Nonviolent

  • 3
  • 0
  • 11
  • 0
  • 0
  • 2
  • 2
  • 0
  • 1
  • 0
  • 0
  • 7
  • 1
  • 0
  • 1

О Findings are in the opposite direction of the attachment hypothesis (not necessarily statistically significant)

© Relationship is reported as “null” or coefficient = 0

• Findings are in the expected direction of the attachment hypothesis but are not statistically significant

X Findings are in the expected direction of the attachment hypothesis and are statistically significant

 
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