Mathematics

Because studies of academic achievement and reading sometimes have reports about math, we include those in our review, though we have no compelling theory for why a special association between math deficits and violence would occur. Deficits in mathematical ability have been associated with recidivism, but the evidence is scant. Archwamety and Katsiyannis (1998) found that recidivist female delinquents had greater deficits in basic math skills than non-recidivists. In a later report, they found that rates of recidivism were higher among those male juvenile inmates who had been placed in a remedial math program than controls (Archwamety & Katsiyannis, 2000).

School Attachment

In this chapter, we also report findings related to school attachment. We do not expect that school attachment has a special, direct relationship with violence. However, we feel the need to acknowledge the fact that a great many studies have reported associations between school bonds and criminality. In addition, there have been links to serious criminality. Agnew (1993) reported a significant negative association between attachment to school and delinquency in data from the Youth in Transition survey. Anderson et al. (1999) found that attachment to school was significantly, negatively associated with severity of delinquency in boys and girls in their small sample study of incarcerated Wyoming adolescents. School attachment has been correlated with trajectories of delinquency in the Seattle Social Development project where stable/high aggressives had the lowest attachment to school (Ayers, Williams, Hawkins, Peterson, Catalano, & Abbott, 1999). The authors of that study also found attachment to school was significantly associated with desistance. Some authors have proposed that the effects of school performance on delinquency are mediated by effects on school bonds (e.g., Ward & Tittle, 1994). By contrast, greater attachment to school has predicted later academic achievement in both minority and nonminority adolescents (LeCroy & Krysik, 2008), which suggests a different route to violence. Reviewing the evidence, Payne and Welch (2013) conclude that existing research supports a causal association between school bonding and delinquency. Due to the amount of attention that school attachment has received, we feel obliged to include it here.

 
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