RESULTS

Summary of Findings on Violence

There were approximately 21 studies overall reporting findings for the association between warmth and violence or physical aggression. The preponderance of comparisons (PoC3) favored a statistically significant effect in the expected direction in 3 of 12 studies reporting findings for “parental warmth" 2 of 7 studies of “maternal warmth" and 1 of 5 studies of “paternal warmth” (see Tables 7.1 and 7.2). This does not sound like strong support, but note that the PoC was in the predicted direction in an additional 5 of 11 studies of parental warmth, 5 of 7 studies of maternal warmth, and 3 of 5 studies of paternal warmth, adding up to a very strong majority of studies. The number of “preponderantly statistically significant" studies was greater than that expected by chance (which would be less than 5% if a = .05). After considering the possibility of some publication bias, we still conclude that the findings favor an inverse association between parental warmth and violent behavior.

By comparison, a large proportion, 8 out of 12 studies of parental rejection and violence reported a PoC which was both in the expected direction and statistically

Table 7.1 Summary of Study-Level Findings: Warmth, Rejection, and Violent/Nonviolent Antisocial Behavior

Summary of STUDY Results

Independent Variable

Number of Studies (k)

rn

о

©

X

Parental Warmth

Violent

12

2

1

1

5

3

Nonviolent

4

1

1

0

1

1

Maternal Warmth

Violent

7

0

0

0

5

2

Nonviolent

5

0

0

0

2

3

Paternal Warmth

Violent

5

0

1

0

3

1

Nonviolent

4

0

0

0

1

3

Parental Rejection

Violent

12

1

1

1

1

8

Nonviolent

5

0

2

0

0

3

Щ Findings for the study overall are ambiguous

О Findings are in the opposite direction of the attachment hypothesis (not necessarily statistically significant)

© Relationship is reported as 0 or simply “not significant” without associated direction

• Findings are in the expected direction of the attachment hypothesis but are not statistically significant

X Findings are in the expected direction of the attachment hypothesis and are statistically significant

Table 7.2 Summary of Comparison-Level Findings: Warmth, Rejection, and Violent/Nonviolent Antisocial Behavior

Summary of COMPARISONS

Independent Variable

Number of Comparisons

О

©

X

Parental Warmth

Violent

26

5

7

7

7

Nonviolent

6

2

1

1

2

Maternal Warmth

Violent

23

3

0

14

6

Nonviolent

9

0

0

2

7

Paternal Warmth

Violent

17

5

0

7

5

Nonviolent

8

0

1

1

6

Parental Rejection

Violent

31

3

6

5

17

Nonviolent

8

3

0

0

5

О Findings are in the opposite direction of the attachment hypothesis (not necessarily statistically significant)

© Relationship is reported as 0 or simply “not significant” without associated direction

• Findings are in the expected direction of the attachment hypothesis but are not statistically significant

X Findings are in the expected direction of the attachment hypothesis and are statistically significant

significant; this is strong support for the conclusion that parental rejection is associated with violent behavior. This conclusion is not tentative.

 
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