The studies that we summarize here were published in scholarly journals or books or unpublished dissertations since 1980. They each include one or more community factor as an independent variable in models that examine separate dependent variables for violent and nonviolent crime. To compile this sample, we once again conducted a literature search using the Criminal Justice Abstracts database. We ran multiple searches using a variety of combinations of search terms related to the study of communities and crime. In order to capture as many of the dual dependent variable studies as possible, we paired search terms representing community factors with a list of violent and nonviolent crime search words. Search terms included, communities or community, neighborhood, social disorganization, collective efficacy, routine activities, disorder, and decline, systematically paired with outcome terms: violent, violence, nonviolent, homicide, robbery, assault, theft, and burglary. We sifted through the hundreds of returns. In addition, as in the other chapters, we also added studies that we came across through other means. Ultimately, we judged that 32 studies fulfilled our criteria for inclusion, and we examined them in detail. The majority of these studies analyze data from the United States, but some analyze data from other countries like Australia (Jobes et al., 2004), Great Britain (Sampson & Groves, 1989), and the Netherlands (Van Wilsem et al., 2006). We believe that this set of studies can provide an adequate overview of the state of our knowledge regarding the differential effects of community factors on violent versus nonviolent crime.

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