OVERVIEW OF THE FINDINGS

Table 12.1 summarizes the findings. As the reader can see, there are some areas where the pattern of findings from existing studies, summarized here, supports the differential etiology of violence hypothesis. This gross observation

Table 12.1 The Differential Etiology of Violence: Summary of Substantive Conclusions

Association

with

Nonviolent

offending?

Association More Consistent with Violent than Nonviolent Offending?

Different Level in Violent Compared to Nonviolent Offenders?

(in Predicted Direction)

Chapter 4: Intelligence and Executive Function

Intelligence

®

®

+

Verbal Ability

®

®

+

Performance Intelligence

®

®

+

Deviation Scores

®

®

+

Executive Function

О

+

+

(Combined)

Chapter 5: School Factors

Academic Achievement

+

О

+

Reading

®

®

+

Mathematics

®

®

+

School Attachment

+

О

+

Parent Education

О

+

+

Learning Disability

®

®

+

School Problems

®

®

+

Academic Attainment

О

+

+

Chapter 6: Attachment

Combined Attachment

+

О

+

Categories

Parental Loss and

®

®

n/a

Separation

Attachment Categories

®

®

n/a

Continuous Measures

+

О

n/a

of Attachment

Parental Bonding

+

О

n/a

Caregiver Sensitivity

®

®

n/a

Chapter 7: Parental Warmth and Rejection

Parental Warmth

+

and Rejection Combined

Parental Warmth

+

О

n/a

Parental Rejection

®

+

n/a

Chapter 8: Child Abuse

Mixed Abuse

+

О

+

Physical Abuse

+

О

+

(continued)

Association

with

Nonviolent

offending?

Association More Consistent with Violent than Nonviolent Offending?

Different Level in Violent Compared to Nonviolent Offenders?

(in Predicted Direction)

Neglect

+

О

О

Sexual Abuse

+

о

+

Trauma

+

®

+

Chapter 9: Poverty

Poverty

+

®

+ 1

(Standard Measures)

Deprivation Indices

+

+

Chapter 10: Community Factors

Ethnic heterogeneity

+

о

n/a

Residential Instability

+

О

n/a

Family Disruption

+

о

n/a

Subculture of Violence

®

®

+2

Disorder and Incivilities

®

®

n/a

Residential Stability

®

о

n/a

Social Networks/Collective

+

о

n/a

Efficacy

Chapter 11: Alcohol and Drugs

Alcohol Consumption

+

+

+

Alcohol Intoxication

+

+

+

Alcohol Availability

+

о

n/a

Drug Use

+

о

+

(Undifferentiated)

Marijuana

+

о

+

Cocaine

+

®

®

Heroin/Opiates

+

о

®

Other Drugs (PCP, Meth,

+

о

+

Ecstasy etc.)

+ “Yes,” Consistent Evidence + “Yes,” Tentative О “No,” Consistent Evidence

0 “No,” Tentative

® Evidence is Inconclusive

  • 1 This summary symbol combines standard poverty measures and deprivation indices.
  • 2 Based on qualitative findings is important in that it contradicts the assumption that criminality is unidimensional and that general theories are adequate for understanding violence completely.
 
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