The Social Development Project
The Social Development Model, forwarded by Catalano and Hawkins (1996), outlines two developmental pathways, prosocial and antisocial, and the beliefs, associations with peers, skills, and bonds to others that lead to prosocial and antisocial outcomes. In theory tests, the data support the model for predicting violent behavior (e.g., Huang, Kosterman, Catalano, Hawkins, & Abbott, 2001). Many evaluations of the Seattle Social Development project, which applies the causal model, affirm that the intervention operates to reduce offending through its effects on prosocial bonding, prosocial beliefs, involvement with prosocial and antisocial persons, and socioemotional and sociocognitive skills (e.g., Brown et al., 2005). Reviewing the findings, the authors write that 18 year-olds who had taken part in the full intervention condition were more attached and committed to school than controls, had significantly better grades and less misbehavior in school, and reported a lower prevalence of heavy alcohol use and violent behavior (Hawkins et al., 2003).