Standard or “Broker " Case Management
Standard or “broker” case management was one of the first models of case management to be developed (Mueser et al., 1998). The overall goal in the standard model is to connect the individual to needed services and coordinate service implementation among the various providers. The case manager does not act as a clinician and does not typically conduct outreach activities. Some are actually based in clinics. The average caseload is about 35 individuals, and the services are time-limited. In the standard-broker model, case managers are typically not required to have a degree in a clinical discipline. Studies of the outcome of standard case management versus usual care for homeless individuals have revealed mixed outcomes in many areas of functioning. Compared to usual community care, standard case management for homeless substance users has led to improvements in housing stability, reduced use of substances, and a lessening of barriers to employment resulting from substance abuse (deVet et al., 2013). A meta-analysis focused on case management for homeless people with severe mental illness, in which the effectiveness of standard case management was compared to the more intensive and clinically-oriented assertive community treatment, yielded no differences in hospitalization outcomes. Individuals treated with assertive community treatment, however, experienced greater improvement is psychiatric symptoms and a greater reduction of homelessness compared to those treated with standard case management (Coldwell & Bender, 2007).