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Diffusion weighted and diffusion tensor imaging: a clinical guide

PrefacePhysics of Diffusion Weighted and Diffusion Tensor ImagingIntroductionDiffusion Weighted ImagingBrownian MotionStejskal and TannerT2 Shine-through Effect and Apparent Diffusion Coefficcient MapRestriction of Water Diffusion in Brain Tissue ADC as a Marker of Tissue MicrostructureSize of Tissue CompartmentsInfluence of the b Factor on the ADCChoice of the b ValueAnisotropy of Water Diffusion in the Brain Isotropic and Anisotropic DiffusionThe Tensor ModelTractographyDiffusion Imaging TechniquesDWI with Spin-Echo-Echo- Planar ImagingDWI with Periodically Rotated Overlapping Parallel Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction (PROPELLER)DWI with Fluid-Attenuated Inversion RecoveryDWI ParametersDiffusion PitfallsPerfusion EffectsMotion ArtifactsCerebrospinal Fluid Pulsation EffectsNyquist GhostsEddy Current ArtifactsSpike ArtifactsSense ArtifactSummaryReferencesBrain Edema: PathophysiologyIntroductionPathophysiologyVasogenic EdemaCytotoxic Edema and Excitotoxic Brain Injury Excitotoxic Brain InjuryCytotoxic EdemaDiseases Associated With Cerebral EdemaVasogenic EdemaNeoplasm-Related Vasogenic EdemaCytotoxic Edema/Excitotoxic Brain InjuryArterial InfarctionCerebral Venous InfarctionMultiple SclerosisCreutzfeldt-Jakob DiseaseHypoxic Ischemic EncephalopathyHerpes EncephalitisLimbic EncephalitisOsmotic MyelinolysisStatus EpilepticusFocal Lesion in the Splenium of the Corpus Callosum in EpilepsyDiffuse Axonal InjurySummaryReferencesSupratentorial White Matter Tracts and Their OrganizationIntroductionTechnical ConsiderationsWhite Matter Tract CategorizationAssociation TractsCingulum BundleSuperior Longitudinal FasciculusArcuate FasciculusInferior Longitudinal FasciculusUncinate FasciculusFronto-occipital FasciculusCommissural PathwaysCorpus CallosumAnterior CommissureProjection TractsPyramidal TractsOptic RadiationClinical Application: Neurosurgical PlanningSummaryAcknowledgmentReferencesDiffusion Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Brain during Early Brain Development: The First Two Years of LifeIntroductionTemporal Growth Pattern of Major White Matter TractsSpatial Growth Pattern of Major White Matter TractsGenetic Control and Environmental EffectsCognitive CorrelationsLateralization and Gender EffectsClinical ApplicationsSummaryReferencesDiffusion Weighted and Diffusion Tensor Imaging in AgingPhysics and TechniquesDiffusion Weighted ImagingDiffusion Tensor ImagingDTI-Based MeasurementsClinical ApplicationsNormal AgingPathophysiology of DTI Changes in AgingMild Cognitive ImpairmentAssociation between Specific Cognitive Functions and Diffusion ChangesAlzheimer DiseaseOther DementiasFrontotemporal DementiaDementia with Lewy BodiesVascular DementiaProgressive Supranuclear PalsyOther DementiasSummaryReferencesDiffusion Weighted Imaging in Vascular PathologyIntroductionAcute Stroke and Diffusion Weighted ImagingIntroductionPathophysiology of StrokePump Failures and Metabolic ChangesCell DeathLarge Vessel Acute Stroke and Diffusion Weighted Imaging Evolutionary ChangesHyperacute Stage: Less Than 12 HoursAcute Stage: 12 to 24 HoursSubacute Stage: 2 Days to 2 WeeksChronic Stage: 2 Weeks to 2 MonthsTime Course of Diffusion Changes in Acute StrokeHemorrhagic Transformation Prediction and Diffusion Weighted ImagingReliability of Diffusion Weighted Imaging in Imaging of StrokeWatershed InfarctionLacunar InfarctIsolated Punctate Cortical InfarctionsTransient Ischemic AttackCapillary Leak SyndromesPosterior Reversible Encephalopathy SyndromeHyperperfusion Syndrome following Carotid EndarterectomyVenous InfarctionSeptic InfarctionVascular Lesion Mimics on Diffusion Weighted ImagingInfection: Herpes EncephalitisMetabolic HypoglycemiaTumor: LymphomaMultiple SclerosisTransient Global AmnesiaSummaryReferencesDiffusion Weighted Imaging in the Evaluation of Brain TumorsIntroductionClinical ApplicationsDifferentiation between Cystic Brain LesionsTumor Grading and InfiltrationPatterns of Peritumoral White Matter TractsSpecial CasesMeningiomaLymphomaEpidermoid TumorsPediatric Intracranial TumorsPosttreatment EvaluationImmediate Postoperative EvaluationPseudoprogressionPseudoresponseFuture ApplicationsHigh b Value Diffusion Weighted Imaging (HBDWI)Functional Diffusion MapsDiffusion Tensor Imaging OutcomesTractographySummaryReferencesDiffusion Weighted and Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Infectious DiseasesClinical ApplicationsIntroductionBrief Overview of Infectious Diseases and DWI and DTI Bacterial InfectionsViral InfectiousFungal InfectionsParasitic DiseasesPrion InfectionsSummaryReferencesDiffusion Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Demyelination and Toxic DiseasesDiffusion Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Demyelinating DiseasesIntroductionMultiple SclerosisAcute Disseminated EncephalomyelitisNeuromyelitis OpticaTumefactive Demyelinating LesionBalo Concentric SclerosisOsmotic MyelinolysisDiffusion Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Toxic DiseasesIntroductionAntineoplastic Treatment Radiation TherapyDrugs of Recreational Use HeroinOther Drugs CyclosporineEnvironmental Toxins Carbon MonoxideReversible Splenial LesionsSummaryReferencesDiffusion Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging of White Matter Diseases In ChildrenPhysicsClinical ApplicationsRestricted Diffusion: Active Inflammatory DemyelinationInherited: X-linked AdrenoleukodystrophyAcquired: Multiple Sclerosis, Acute Disseminated EncephalomyelitisRestricted Diffusion: Diffuse Cytotoxic/Intramyelinic Edema with White Matter CavitationInherited: Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain DeficiencyAcquired: Global Neonatal Hypoxic InjuryRestricted Diffusion, Regional: NeurotoxicityInherited: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (Classic Type)Acquired: Methotrexate ToxicityRestricted Diffusion: Progressive Oligodendrocyte Toxicity and Metabolic FailureInherited: Krabbe Disease (Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy), Metachromatic LeukodystrophyDiffusion Negative: HypomyelinationInherited: Pelizaeus-Merzbacher DiseaseAcquired: Congenital Hypothyroidism, Severe Early MalnutritionIncreased Diffusion: Abnormal Water Homeostasis with Myelin VacuolationInherited: Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical CystsAcquired: Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome (Central Pontine And Extrapontine Myelinolysis)Increased Diffusion: Myelin Rarefaction and Cystic DegenerationInherited: Vanishing White Matter Disease (Myelin Rarefaction, Cystic Degeneration)Acquired: End-Stage DemyelinationSummaryReferencesDiffusion Imaging for the Assessment of Traumatic Brain InjuryIntroductionClinical Context and Diagnostic CriteriaPathology and Pathophysiology: Focal and Diffuse InjuryDiffusion Weighted Imaging—Sensitive Detection of Traumatic Tissue InjuryPathophysiology of Diffusion Weighted Imaging Abnormalities in TBIDetection of DWI abnormalities in TBIDifferential Diagnosis of DWI Abnormalities in Trauma PatientsDiffusion Tensor Imaging- Detection of Microstructural Traumatic Axonal InjuryBiophysical basis of DTI Abnormalities in TBIDTI Abnormalities in TBIDetection of DTI Abnormalities in TBIMeasurement StandardizationSpatial StandardizationDifferential Diagnosis of DTI Abnormalities in Patients with TBISummaryReferencesDiffusion Weighted Imaging in HemorrhageIntroductionClinical ApplicationsIntracerebral Hematomas Hyperacute HematomasAcute and Early Subacute HematomasLate Subacute HematomasApparent Diffusion Coefficient of HematomasSmall Intracranial HemorrhagesHemorrhagic InfarctionsExtra-axial HematomasSubarachnoid HemorrhageSummaryReferencesDiffusion Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Spine and Spinal Cord DiseasesIntroductionTechnical ConsiderationsClinical Applications for DWI and DTI of the Spinal Cord Spinal Cord IschemiaSpinal Cord TumorsClinical Rationale for DWI/DTI in Spinal Cord TumorsMultiple SclerosisNeuromyelitis OpticaTransverse MyelitisClinical Rationale for DWI/DTI in MS, NMO, and TMSpinal Cord TraumaClinical Rationale for DWI/DTI in Traumatic Spinal Cord InjuryClinical Applications for DWI and DTI of the Vertebral BodiesVertebral Body FractureClinical Rationale for DWI in Vertebral Body FracturesDegenerative Changes and SpondylodiskitisClinical Rationale for DWI in Degenerative Spine DiseasesConclusionReferencesDiffusion Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Head and Neck DiseasesIntroductionTumorsSquamous Cell CarcinomaLymphomasOrbital TumorsSalivary Gland TumorsThyroid Gland TumorsParanasal Sinuses TumorsMasticator Space TumorsSkull Base TumorsInflammatory ProcessCholesteatomaOther Inflammatory ProcessesSinusitisOrbital InfectionsOptic NeuritisDiffusion Tensor ImagingSummaryReferencesFuture Applications of Diffusion Weighted Imaging: Diffusional Kurtosis and Other Nongaussian Diffusion TechniquesIntroductionDKI AcquisitionPostprocessingDKI Metrics Interpretation: Applications in the Human BrainAging ProcessAlzheimer DiseaseBrain DevelopmentTraumaEpilepsyOther ApplicationsParei Aqui Faltam Key PointsSummaryAcknowledgmentsReferences
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