- 1. More information on the subject of scientific excellence can be found in the online documentation of the 2012 conference “Excellence Revisited” held in Aarhus in conjunction with the Danish Presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2012 (www.excellence2012.dk. viewed 20.02.2013).
- 2. Cf. the 2006 concept paper of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF). www.fwf.ac.at/de/downloads/pdf/exzellenzinitiative-wissenschaft.pdf. accessed 20 February 2013.
- 3. It is indicative in this regard that the European Union’s eighth “Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development” (2014-20) reserves the biggest share. USD 32.7 billion. for “Excellent Science”.
http://ec.europa.eu/research/horizon2020/pdf/press/horizon 2020 budget constant 2011. pdf. accessed 20 February 2013.
- 4. A recent anthology discussing the German REI from a policy perspective captures this conviction in its title. Making Excellence (Keller. 2008).
- 5. One example. the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC). states that “NHMRC will only support excellence in research because the best outcomes flow from the best research”
www.nhmrc.gov.au/ files nhmrc/file/grants/apply/programs/2012 program grants f unding rules for funding in 2014.pdf. p. 7. accessed 20 February 2013.
- 6. A set of indicators for both monitoring and performance-based funding of research has been developing over the last decade. See European Commission (2010) for a review.
- 7. A notable exception is the PEAC project which is focussing on research excellence schemes in Denmark. Finland. Norway and Sweden (see Langfeldt et al. 2013).
- 8. Italy’s REI did not fit the project definition and Turkey is considering introducing a special funding programme for excellent research institutions (further details are provided in Chapter 2).
- 9. The electronic survey contained multiple choice questions and fields for open-ended comments. All questionnaires are available from the OECD Secretariat.
- 10. The electronic surveys were returned directly to the OECD Secretariat.
- 11. The German Excellence Initiative may serve as evidence. In the first funding cycle. the universities that succeeded in the third. most prestigious line of funding. were those that had been most successful in raising public third-party funds in the years preceding the REI (Bloch et al.. 2008. p. 103f.).
- 12. Aksnes et al. (2012. p. 59) report that in Scandinavia. each country has one or two universities that distinguish themselves by hosting a considerably above-average share of centres.
- 13. The Finnish CoE scheme was at first (1995-96) only about reputation. No specific funding was provided for the centres; the competition was exclusively about receiving official excellence status (Aksnes et al.. 2012. p. 26).
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