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International Bureaucracy: Challenges and Lessons for Public Administration Research

A Public Administration Perspective on International OrganizationsPerspectives and GapsContours of a PA Approach to IPAsCentral Conceptual Perspectives on IPAsNotesReferencesA Matter of Will and Action: The Bureaucratic Autonomy of International Public AdministrationsBureaucratic Autonomy: The PA PerspectiveBureaucratic Organization at the International Level: How Is It Different?Approaching Autonomy from a Relational and Sociological PerspectiveConceptualizing and Measuring International Bureaucratic AutonomyEmpirical Results and Possible ImplicationsConclusion and Way ForwardNotesReferencesAdministrative Styles of International Organizations: Can We Find Them, Do They Matter?Administrative Styles: State of the Art and Research GapsA Refined Concept of Administrative Styles(1) Policy Initiation Styles(2) Policy Drafting Styles(3) Policy Implementation StylesToward Explanation: Determinants of Administrative Styles(1) The Policy Ambitions of the Bureaucracy(2) The Institutional Orientation of a BureaucracyFour Ideal Types of Administrative StylesConclusionReferencesOrchestrating (Bio-)Diversity: The Secretariat of the Convention of Biological Diversity as an Attention-Seeking BureaucracyHeuristic Framework: International Secretariats as Attention-Seeking BureaucraciesTreaty Secretariats as Attention-Seeking BureaucraciesSeeking Attention from the Inside: Treaty Secretariats’ Cooperation with Cha^irpersons of Multilateral NegotiationsBuilding Support from the Outside: Treaty Secretariats as Transnational Knowledge BrokersThe International Biodiversity SecretariatSecretarial Cooperation with the ChairpersonsSecretarial Involvement in Transnational Policy DebatesDiscussionConclusionNotesReferencesThe Authority of International Public AdministrationsAuthority of IOs and IPAs in IR ScholarshipConceptual ClarificationsHolders of Authority in IOsFaces of AuthorityAuthority as Social Relationship and Distinct form of PowerTypes and Forms of AuthorityTwo Clarifications are ImportantThe Conceptual Clarifications and Their Usefulness: A Brief IllustrationA Framework for Studying the De Facto Expert Authority of IPAsWhen and Why Should IPAs Enjoy Expert Authority?Measurement of De Facto Expert AuthorityConclusionNotesReferencesChanging Budgeting Administration in International Organizations: Budgetary Pressures, Complex Principals and Administrative LeadershipBudgetary Stress in IOsThe CPA Perspective: Budgets, Bureaucratic Motivations and Organizational ChangeExternal Factors: Budgetary Pressures and Administrative AdaptationInternal Factors: Bureaucratic Motivations and BudgetsThe IR Perspective: Complex Budget Principals, Mixed Signals and Administrative LeadershipChanging Budgetary Organization and Procedures: ILO, UNESCO and WHOHypotheses and Case SelectionInternational Labour Organization (ILO)United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)World Health Organization (WHO)SummaryLessons Learnt: From National Public Administrations (NPAs) to IPAs and BackNotesReferencesMultilevel Administration in International and National ContextsThe Concept of Multilevel AdministrationMultilevel Administration in the National ContextMultilevel Administration in the International ContextMember-Driven and Administration-Driven StructuresRegulatory, Analytical, and Organizational Functions of AdministrationSectoral and Cross-sectoral AdministrationsEU Administration as a Hybrid CaseConclusionReferencesInternational Public Administration: A New Type of Bureaucracy? Lessons and Challenges for Public Administration ResearchDistinctive Behavioral Patterns of IPAs: Five PropositionsProposition 1: IPAs Are Inherently AutonomousProposition 2: IPAs Are EntrepreneurialProposition 3: For IPAs, Expertise and Information Are More Important Tools Than Rules and Formal PowersProposition 4: IPAs Generate Budgetary ResourcesCONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR PASelf-restraining Bureaucratic Behavior Needs to be Added to the Potential Range of Administrative StrategiesThe Ability to Interconnect Actors and Channel Abundant Information Are New Sources of Administrative PowerA New Balance Between Bureaucratic Autonomy and Politica^l Control EmergesThe Resilience of IPAs and Their Adaptability to Forbidding Context Conditions Challenges Traditional Accounts of BureaucracyThe Study of IPAs Provides Methodological Leverage for Producing General InsightsConclusionReferences
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