Models of governance of addictions

Ysa et al. (2014) identify 19 key policy characteristics that have been used to cluster 28 European countries into four different groups (see Table 8.1). Some of the grouped countries may seem strange to the reader, especially if they have traditional models

Table 8.1 Models of governance of addictions in Europe




1 Trendsetters in illegal substances

These countries combine a well-being and relational management strategy with a comprehensive structure

Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain

2 Regulation of legal substances

These countries have strict regulation on legal substances (tobacco and alcohol)

Finland, France, ireland, Norway, Sweden, and the UK

3 Transitioning


This group gathers the most divergent countries of the sample. They do not follow a clear trend

Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Denmark, Poland, and Slovenia

4 Traditional approach

Countries within this cluster have still not embraced the three trends. They have a 'safety and disease' strategy combined with a 'substance-based structure'

Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, and Slovakia

Source: data from Ysa T, Colom J, Albareda A, Ramon A, Carrion M, and Segura L. Governance of Addictions: European Public Policies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Copyright © 2014 Oxford University Press.

in mind, but the addiction field poses some challenges and complexities, and contextual factors (geopolitics), culture and traditions, among others, that have a high impact in their governance.

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