The New Political Economy of Pharmaceuticals: Production, Innovation and TRIPS in the Global South

The New Political Economy of Pharmaceuticals: Conformity and Resistance in the Global SouthA changing strategic environmentSurging drug markets in the Global SouthGovernment strategiesConformity and alignmentStrategies of resistanceCompulsory licencesConclusionReferencesThe Political Economy of Pharmaceutical Production in BrazilThe legal framework for pharmaceuticalsCompulsory licencesPipeline patentsOngoing legal conflictsMarket liberalization and pharmaceutical regulationPublic procurementIntroduction of genericsThe political economy of production: Local pharmaceutical manufacturingConclusionNotesReferencesPharmaceuticals, Health Policy and Intellectual Property Rights in ChinaAdoption of TRIPSEconomic growth and healthcare reformTRIPS compliance and the demand for prescription drugsTRIPS compliance and the supply of pharmaceutical productsEntry of foreign multinational firmsConclusion and policy implicationsReferencesImmunity to TRIPS? Vaccine Production and the Biotechnology Industry in CubaThe Cuban pharmaceutical sectorThe Cuban biotechnology sector: Technological maturity prior to TRIPSWhat makes Cuba distinctive?Local and non-local forms of resistance to TRIPSLocalized IPR regimesNon-localized processesBiologicals: Epistemic and material limitations of TRIPSCase studiesConclusionNotesReferencesTRIPS and Access to Medicines in EgyptEgypt's pharmaceutical sector: BackgroundAccessibility and availability of medicines The pricing systemThe Egyptian pharmaceutical marketPharmaceutical patents granted post-TRIPSImpact of TRIPS on generics producers IPR-related cases before 1 January 2005Registration of drugs during the transitional phaseMultinationals using the back doorMaking drugs unavailable to push prices upAttack through counter-propagandaNon-IPR factors impeding access to essential medicinesThe future of pharmaceutical production in EgyptNew technologies threatening local pharmaceutical productionResearch and development in EgyptTechnology transfer and consolidated policy framework: The way forwardConclusionReferencesThe Pharmaceutical Industry in India after TRIPSRising dominance of the multinationalsMarket structure and prices of patented productsR&D strategiesR&D for new chemical entitiesConclusionsNotesReferencesThe Healthcare System and the Pharmaceutical Industry in IndonesiaThe Indonesian healthcare systemThe Indonesian healthcare system and medicinesRegulation of drug registration and approvalThe pharmaceutical industryUnbranded generic medicinesIntellectual property rightsThe Indonesian virus caseConclusionReferencesTRIPS, Free Trade Agreements and the Pharmaceutical Industry in MalaysiaFinancing the healthcare systemThe Malaysian pharmaceutical industryIntellectual property rights, TRIPS and free trade agreementsCompulsory licensingDomestic pharmaceutical production and government regulationPricing and distribution of essential medicinesThe domestic generics industryConclusionReferencesThe Pharmaceutical Industry, Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Medicines in PakistanThe health systemSocial protection and medical reimbursementNational health policyThe pharmaceutical industryMedicines regulationMedicines pricingThe local generics pharmaceutical industryNational drug policyIntellectual property rights and medicinesFree trade agreements and the pharmaceutical industryConcluding remarksReferencesTRIPS, Access to Medicines and Local Production in South AfricaAccess to healthcare in South AfricaIntellectual property protection in South Africa—the backgroundThe constitutional frameworkComponents of South Africa's patent regimePatent standardsNew uses of an inventionIndustrial applicabilityOpposition proceduresExclusions from patentabilityCompulsory licensingGovernment useVoluntary licencesParallel importationRevocation of patentCompetition lawData protectionSummaryThe pharmaceutical sector in South Africa Shape and sizePost-TRIPS prospectsConclusionReferencesTRIPS and New Challenges for the Pharmaceutical Sector in South KoreaThe healthcare system in South KoreaIntellectual property protection in South KoreaPatentabilityCompulsory licensingParallel importationAnti-trust lawTRIPS-plusData exclusivityPatent linkageThe pharmaceutical sector in South KoreaShape and sizePost-TRIPS prospectsConclusionReferencesNeoliberalism, Intellectual Property Rights and the Turkish Pharmaceutical Industry in the 2000sNeoliberal restructuring and new IPR in TurkeyNeoliberal restructuring in the pharmaceutical industry in the 2000sNeoliberal healthcare reform and the pharmaceutical sectorR&D activities in the generics sectorConclusionNotesReferencesInterviews
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