International Economic Relations in the System of World Economy
To determine the location International Economic Relations in the Global Economic Connections System should be out of the World Economy highlight the Economic Subsystem.
. International economic relations, in spite of being one of the subsystems of the world economy, however, has its own logic and its own development subsystem. In other words, highlighting the international economic relations of the world economic system, it is necessary to determine: systemic (symptoms} characteristics (concept ) , the content material (substrate ), the structure and subjects of international economic relations.
The concept of the international economic relations system
The concept of the system of international economic relations - is a system (integral) ratio, which expresses the unity - the integrity of the system: the overall objective of the whole system and its subsystems at all levels, the mechanism of functioning of the whole system and its subsystems, as well as the norms of behavior of its subjects - the motivation of activity, decision making, the criterion of efficiency, etc.
In other words, the presence of specific integral properties of the large number of interrelated elements making system.
From the standpoint of contemporary realities, those shifts that have occurred in the development of the world community, serve as the backbone to ensure the unity, integrity of international economic relations, the two properties (attribute):
• variety of market-based economic relations , called "socially oriented market system";
• internationalization of economic relations , which grows in the integration and globalization, that is, the formation of a single supranational economic (trade, production and investment, monetary and fiscal) space.
These properties determine the specificity of the content and structure of international economic relations
International economic relations - social and market-based control system
Definition of international economic relations as a socio-driven market system rather vividly reflects its current state:
• market orientation;
• tangible effect of non-market, institutional controls at both the regional and inter-regional and global levels;
• desire to control the world market and an active influence on the domestic national markets by international institutions, multinational corporations, with the help of various tools, including the market.
Thus, international economic relations are capable of self-regulation of the market for corrective role of TNCs, international and supranational institutions. This is an essential feature of the system of international economic relations.
International economic relations - is an information system in the information
International economic relations are an information system in the information society. This is - one of the faces of her social type that defines its operation and development because:
- information and information technology is one of the decisive factors in the growth of labor productivity and competitiveness of firms, national economies, regional groups, multinational corporations. Competitiveness on the basis of information technology is achieved due to a sharp increase in the rate of economic processes by reducing energy consumption, material consumption , the transition to zero waste production;
- the use of information technology is a major factor in making the right management decisions;
- information technology will allow effective small-scale production -oriented to a specific person;
- information and information technologies are changing the nature of the accumulation of wealth, and in the end - the very concept of "wealth". There is a transformation from the real wealth of knowledge and other useful information. Information is usually embodied in a embodied factors, but they are not capable of self-expression. Therefore, the accumulation of human capital is becoming a priority.
A characteristic feature of international economic relations is the fact that from the very beginning because of its nature and an information market is an open system with a high degree of openness.
The overall level of openness of the system of international economic relations is determined by the degree of openness of its subsystems and subjects: first of all the national economies and regional integration groupings, multinational corporations, international economic organizations.
Usually, the "openness" is meant the development of 2-key channels that link the national economic system:
- the international movement of goods and factors of production;
- the international monetary and financial sector.
The current state of the system of international economic relations can distinguish two criteria and therefore the level of openness of its two sub-systems:
1) due to the international division of labor, the degree and forms of involvement in the international movement of goods and factors of production.
2) due to the global economic division of labor, the degree of integration of national economies into a supranational (regional and global) economic area.
On the first level under the "openness" is usually understood the development of 3 key channels that link the national economic system, determine the extent and form of involvement in the international movement of goods, capital and labor.
As an indicator of openness on the first level can serve as a proportion of exports (export quotas) and imports (import quota) in gross domestic product (GDP).
where Eq- export quota; E - export volume.
where Iq - import quota; I -import volume.
The combination of export and import quotas gives an idea of the extent link the individual national economies and the world economy.
An indicator of openness on the first level is the intensity of migration, which is determined by comparing the number of migrants from the population of the country.
In this case, the ratio of emigration (Re), the ratio of immigration (Ri) and the migration turnover (Mt) are calculated
where P - the average number of the country's population, Nem - the number of emigrants Nim - the number of immigrants.
Migration rate is usually calculated in parts per million (%o).
The difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants (Nm - Nem) is the country's net migration, it can be positive or negative. The openness of the economy indicates part of the economy and in the international movement of capital. The role of foreign capital (especially FDI) in the economy of the country is determined by its part in the total amount of investment in the country (including attachments residents).
Another indicator is the proportion of foreign investment (especially FDI) in GDP:
where FDI -foreign investment
On the second level the "openness " of the economy is determined mainly by the degree of independence of the international monetary and financial system, which is implemented through the functioning of the international financial markets. As the dominant figure of the international economic relations as a market economy, in fact, is the effectiveness of the monitoring and regulation of the national economy and the world economy as a whole. The openness of the system of international economic relations is objectively determined by the state of the world economic and international division of labor and the resulting processes of integration and globalization of production and circulation. Thus, international economic relations - is an economic subsystem of the world economy, which specificity, the purpose and mechanism of functioning are determined by its social type.