Targets, premises and motives of the economic integration process
There are two kinds of targets of the economic integration: economic and political ones. The main economic target is: progress of economic effectiveness, and in a consequence, economic development, which a synthetic factor is an increase of the national product and income . While, to the more analytical targets, we can count [6, p.21]:
- modernization of economy, by leading structural changes in production zone;
- free flow of goods, services, labor force and production factors, easy access to outside production factors, that means natural sources and technical knowledge;
- free access to foreign markets,
- reaching profitable prices in import and export,
- progress of specialization and cooperation in production,
- lower costs of technical progress and its higher dynamics.
Also the second group of targets - political ones - played an essential role in European integration.
The main economic target of integration, is maximization of profits from foreign trade and other forms of international cooperation, in frames of integrative grouping. In a short time, member countries increase their share in the internal trade of grouping and terms of trade are getting better. It is possible, thanks to elimination of tariffs, para tariffs and extra tariffs barriers. At the same time, access to markets of other member countries of grouping, is getting better. In a longer time, we can observe profitable changes in economy of member countries of the integration grouping.
Thanks to a cheaper specialization of production and division of work, there is a limitation or abandon of production and investments with relatively lower effectiveness, and concentration investments in the most effective branches. It enables of series of made goods, increase a production range, and then - increase of profits, connected with lower costs. Integrative processes make easier countries, which take part in it, access to outside production factors, especially to raw materials, labour sources and technical knowledge. It enables a limitation or elimination of national barriers of economic development, so also acceleration of a speed of national income increase [2, p.371].
Among the rest of integration targets, it is worth to put attention on civilization ones, tied with development of science technology, informatics, communication, economy organization and political life organization. Reaching these targets is possible, thanks to development of scientific - technical and productive cooperation, information exchange coordination of scientific research, or their common conducting.
Integration also enables a realization of cultural targets. It comes true, by leveling language barriers, ethnic conflicts, closeness all nations and singular people. Besides, integration allows realize targets, coming from global needs. First of all, it is protection of environment, prevention an arms race or disadvantageous demographic phenomenon.
A base of integration process, are some premises and motives. In the literature of the subject, it is stressed that premises, contrary to motives, have an objective character (come from outside of a country and are independent of it ) and outside ( connected with unprofitable for countries wanting to take part in the integration process, changes, which happen in the world economy, and other outside political, military and ecological threats ). Objectivity of premises concerns also a right economic and civilization preparation of a country to be integrated [2, p.34].
Premises of integration can be divided into economic and outside economic ones. Economic premises, appeared in integration ideas in Europe of capitalistic system, what had place in18th century. Before, premises of internal and outside safety, as well as premises of political nature, were dominated. In case of integration countries, creating Council for Economic Assistance, political reasons dominated over economic premises [2, p.18].
To the main economic premises belong: growing competition in the world economy, connected with development of globalization processes - nowadays considered to be the most important premise, limitation of raw materials and labor force in many national economies, searching additional markets for a surplus of goods, necessity to develop inter branches specialization, necessity to concentrate expenses on research and progress of chosen production branches, market reforms in many countries, which resulted in opening for abroad .
To the outside economic premises belong: political and social ones and premises of internal and outside safety. To the political premises, we count uniform system and similarity of targets of foreign politics. Social premises come from a general development of civilization, which limits basic standards in existence and organization of life. Premises of internal and outside safety, define in going to strengthen a defending position of integration grouping, towards surrounding and preventing international conflicts. Another group of outside economic premises, are needs to a common creation of infrastructure of communication and informatics. Also, in environmental protection, cooperation of countries in prevention of pollution, and leveling their negative results, is necessary.
Motives of integration, on a contrary to premises, have a subjective character, and are results of unforced will of power and safety of a country, to the integration. In the literature of the subject, we can differ two kinds of motives -with universal and particular character. Universal motives, come from objective premises of integration, represent mainly in going to improve a defense of a country, towards outside surrounding, by strengthen a position of integrative grouping, towards this surrounding and by stabilization an effect of it.
For developing countries, taking part in integrative processes is a chance to facilitate and accelerate their economic development. Integration allows them to make common infrastructural projects.
Investments, coordinated industry development and mutual sales of goods. Thanks to integration, they can focus on development of these production branches, which enable the most effective use of owned raw sources, reduction of import or widening and verification of export. Also, thanks to integration, creating and developing industry branches in these countries, have a sure sales in internal market of integrative grouping.
To the political reasons of integration of developing countries, belong: strengthen their political position and auction strength in relations with other countries, especially with highly developed ones.
Unfortunately, despite numerous positive aspects of integration for developing countries, real integration processes, meet many difficulties and go very slowly. The results lie in a low level of economic development of these countries and a lack of complementarity of their economy.