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Home arrow Political science arrow Cycles in US Foreign Policy since the Cold War


  • 1. Frederick Taylor, The Berlin Wall: 13 August 1961-9 November 1989 (London: Bloomsbury, 2004), p. 400.
  • 2. Mary Elise Sarotte, The Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall (New York: Basic Books, 2014), p. 177.
  • 3. Charles Krauthammer, “The Unipolar Moment,” Foreign Affairs, 70, no. 1 (1990-1991), 23-33.
  • 4. For more on the debate about the dangers of overseas commitments dragging the United States into unwanted wars, see Michael Beckley, “The Myth of Entangling Alliances,” International Security, 39, no. 4 (Spring 2015), 7-48.
  • 5. Christopher Hemmer, American Pendulum: Recurring Debates in U.S. Grand Strategy (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2015), pp. 10-11 and 176.
  • 6. David M. Kennedy, Freedom Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 393.
  • 7. Andrew Bacevich, The Limits of Power: The End of American Exceptionalism (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2008), pp. 121-122, 114-117, and 160; William Appleman Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1972), pp. 307-312 and Chalmers Johnson, Blowback: The Costs and Consequences ofAmerican Empire (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 2000), pp. 223-224.
  • 8. Winston Churchill, The Gathering Storm (New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1948), pp. 292-295.
  • 9. Graham Allison and Philip Zelikow, Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis (New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 1999), pp. 94-105.
  • 10. S. C. M. Paine, The Wars for Asia, 1911-1949 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012), pp. 3-11.
  • 11. George H. W. Bush, “Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the Cessation of the Persian Gulf War,” March 6, 1991, p. 3.
  • 12. Margaret Thatcher, The Downing Street Years (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), p. 824.
  • 13. Mark P. Lagon, The Reagan Doctrine: Sources ofAmerican Conduct in the Cold War’s Last Chapter (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1994), pp.2-3.
  • 14. Don Oberdofer, “Thatcher Says Cold War Has Come to an End,” Washington Post, November 18, 1988, p. A 1.
  • 15. Brian Crozier, The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire (Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1999), p. 403.
  • 16. Crozier, The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire, p. 360.
  • 17. Mitchell Reiss, Bridled Ambition: Why Countries Constrain Their Nuclear Capabilities (Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1995), p. 98.
  • 18. Mikhail Gorbachev, Memoirs (New York: Doubleday, 1995), p. 533.
  • 19. James A. Baker III, The Politics of Diplomacy: Revolution, War, and Peace, 1989-1992 (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1995), p. 249.
  • 20. Philip Zelikow and Condoleezza Rice, Germany United and Europe Transformed: A Study in Statecraft (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), p. 352.
  • 21. Stephen Sestanovich, “Not Much Kinder and Gentler,” New York Times, February 3, 2006, p. A 27.
  • 22. Michael Halloran, “U.S. Troops Go Slowly Into Panama,” New York Times, May 12, 1989, p. A 6.
  • 23. Baker, The Politics of Diplomacy: Revolution, War, and Peace, p. 183.
  • 24. Tom Kenworthy and Joe Pichirallo, “Bush Clears Plan to Topple Noriega,” Washington Post, November 17, 1989, p. A 1.
  • 25. R. M. Koster and Guillermo Sanchez Borbon, In The Time of Tyrants (London: Secker & Warburg, 1990), p. 330.
  • 26. Abraham D. Sofaer, “The Legality of the United States Action in Panama,” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 29 (1991), 284-285.
  • 27. For an account of the military operations, see Thomas Donnelly, Margaret Roth, and Caleb Baker, Operation Just Cause: The Storming of Panama (New York: Lexington Books, 1991), pp. 236-322.
  • 28. Randal C. Archibold, “Noriega Is Sent to Prison Back in Panama, Where the Terror Has Turned to Shrugs,” New York Times, December 11, 2011, p. A 1.
  • 29. Cited in Robert C. Harding, The History of Panama (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2006), pp. 112-113.
  • 30. Patrick J. Buchanan, A Republic, Not an Empire (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001), p. 387.
  • 31. Lorenzo Crowell, “The Anatomy of Just Cause: The Forces Involved, the Adequacy of Intelligence, and Its Success as a Joint Operation,” in Operation Just Cause: The U.S. Intervention in Panama, ed. Bruce W. Watson and Peter G. Tsouras (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991), p. 95.
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