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Notes

  • 1. For background on post-World War I Iraq and King Faisal, see Ali A. Allawi, Faisal I of Iraq (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014), pp. 361-381.
  • 2. Vali Nasr, The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future (New York: W.W. Norton, 2006), pp. 108-117.
  • 3. Charles Tripp, A History ofIraq (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2nd ed., 2002), pp. 231-233.
  • 4. Dilip Hiro, Neighbors, Not Friends: Iraq and Iran After the Gulf Wars (London: Routledge, 2001), p. 19.
  • 5. William L. Cleveland, A History of the Modern Middle East (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000), p. 405.
  • 6. Joel Brinkley, “Israel Puts a Satellite in Orbit a Day after Threat by Iraqis,” New York Times, April 4, 1990, p. A 3.

7. Micah I Sifry and Christopher Cerf, eds., The Gulf War Reader: History, Documents, Opinion (New York: Random House, 1991),

p. 102.

  • 8. James A. Baker III, The Politics ofDiplomacy: Revolution, War, and Peace (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1995), p. 263.
  • 9. Tripp, A History of Iraq, pp. 248-250.
  • 10. George H.W. Bush and Brent Scowcroft, A World Transformed (New York: Vintage Books, 1999), p. 311.
  • 11. Pamela Fessler, “Glaspie Defends Her Actions, U.S. Policy before Invasion,” Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, March 23, 1991,pp. 259-260.
  • 12. John F. Burns, “A Cadillac and Other Plunder,” New York Times, December 30, 2002, p. A 1; Dilip Hiro, Desert Shield to Desert Storm: The Second Gulf War (New York: Author’s Choice Books, 2003), pp. 103-104; and Public Authority for the Assessment of Damages Resulting from Iraqi Aggression. Downloaded from http://www.paac.org. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 13. Bush and Scowcroft, World Transformed, p. 332.
  • 14. Kevin Mattson, What the Heck Are You Up To, Mr. President?: Jimmy Carter, America’s “Malaise,” and the Speech that Should Have Changed the Country (New York: Bloomsbury, 2010), pp.21-31.
  • 15. Thomas L. Friedman, “U.S. Jobs at Stake in Gulf, Baker Says,” New York Times, November 14, 1990, p. A 14.
  • 16. Bush and Scowcroft, A World Transformed, p. 370 and President Bush, “Toward a New World Order,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch, September 17, 1990, p. 91.
  • 17. Patrick J. Buchanan, A Republic, Not an Empire (Washington, DC: Regnery, 1999), pp. 5 and 359.
  • 18. Ibid.
  • 19. Michael R. Gordon, “In Case of War, Congress Wants Right to Meet,” New York Times, October 25, 1990, p. A 12.
  • 20. Anonymous, “Iraqi Scientist Discusses A-Bomb Effort,” New York Times, January 28, 2005, p. A 8 and Dafna Linzer, “Arms Reports Name Western Suppliers to Nuke Program,” Washington Post, December 18, 2002, p. 13.
  • 21. Brian Callanan and David Weiler, “War Budgeting Strategies: Case Studies of The Gulf War and The Iraq War,” Briefing Paper No. 39
  • (Harvard Law School), May 2008. Downloaded from http:// www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/hjackson/WarBudgeting_39.pdf. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 22. Bush and Scowcroft, A World Transformed, pp. 346-347.
  • 23. Rick Atkinson, Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993), pp. 81-85 and 37-80.
  • 24. HRH General Khaled bin Sultan, Desert Warrior: A Personal View of the Gulf War by the Joint Forces Commander (New York: HarperCollins, 1995), pp. 237-242 and 266-290.
  • 25. Atkinson, Crusade, p. 477.
  • 26. Colin Powell, My American Journey (New York: Random House, 1995), p. 521.
  • 27. Bush and Scowcroft, A World Transformed, p. 489.
  • 28. Cited by George F. Will, “What to Ask the Nominee?” Washington Post, November 17, 2004, p. A 27.
  • 29. Angelo Codevilla, “Magnificent, But Was It War?” Commentary, 93, no. 4 (April, 1992), 15-20.
  • 30. Michael R. Gordon and Bernard E. Trainor, The Generals War: The Inside Story of the Conflict in the Gulf (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1995), p. 443.
  • 31. “Remarks and an Exchange with Reporters Prior to Discussions with Prince Bandar sin Sultan of Saudi Arabia,” February 28, 1991, George H.W. Bush Presidential Library. Downloaded from http://bushlibrary.tamu.edu/research/papers/1991/91022804. html. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 32. Michael R. Gordon and General Bernard E. Trainor, The Generals’ War: The Inside Story of the Conflict in the Gulf (Boston: Little, Brown and Co. 1995), pp. 443-448.
  • 33. Jon Western, “Sources of Humanitarian Intervention: Beliefs, Information, and Advocacy in the U.S. Decisions in Somalia and Bosnia,” International Security, 26, no. 4 (2002), 112-142. Downloaded from https://muse.jhu.edu/journals/international_ security/v026/26.4western.html. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 34. One author believed that Baker gave Serbia a green light to engage in military force to preserve the federation. Tim Judah, Kosovo: War and Revenge (New Haven, CT: Yale University, 2002), p. 138.
  • 35. Laura Silber and Allan Little, Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation (New York: Penguin Books, 1995), pp. 197-198 and 350-358.
  • 36. Colin Powell, My American Journey (New York: Random House, 1995), pp. 558-559.
  • 37. Baker, The Politics of Diplomacy, p. 65.
  • 38. David Gardner, “EC Dashes into Its Own Backyard,” Financial Times, July 1, 1991, p. 2.
  • 39. “U.S. Support for CSCE,” U. S. Department of State Dispatch, 3, Issue 28 (July 13, 1992), p. 1.
  • 40. Don Oberdorfer, “A Bloody Failure in the Balkans,” Washington Post, February 8, 1993, p. A 1.
  • 41. Richard Holbrooke, To End a War (New York: Random House, 1998), p. 23.
  • 42. David Binder, “Bush Warns Serbs Not to Widen War,” New York Times, December 28, 1992, p. A 6.
  • 43. Peter Baker, “Hindsight Proves Kinder, and Gentler, to Bush 41,” New York Times, April 4, 2014, p. A 14.
 
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