Notes

  • 1. Thomas L. Friedman, “Bosnia Reconsidered,” New York Times, April 8, 1993, p. A 5.
  • 2. Elizabeth Drew, On the Edge: The Clinton Presidency (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994), p. 153.
  • 3. Colin Powel, My American Journey (New York: Random House, 1995), p. 576.
  • 4. David Owen, Balkan Odyssey (New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1995), p. 172.
  • 5. Clinton, My Life, p. 534.
  • 6. Laura Silber and Allan Little, Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation (New York: Penguin Books, 1995), p. 274.
  • 7. Elaine Sciolino, “U.S. Goal on Bosnia: Keeping War Within Borders,” New York Times, May 19, 1993, p. A 1.
  • 8. As a representative account of the lament for Bosnia and a stinging indictment of Western reaction, see David Rieff, Slaughterhouse: Bosnia and the Failure of the West (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995), pp. 14-15, 227, and 256-257.
  • 9. Michael E. Gordon, “Modest Air Operation in Bosnia Crosses a Major Political Frontier,” New York Times, April 11, 1994, p. A 1.
  • 10. Cited in David Rothkopf, Running the World: The Inside Story of the National Security Council and the Architects of American Power (New York: Public Affairs, 2005), p. 339.
  • 11. Todd S. Purdum, “Clinton Vetoes Lifting Bosnia Arms Embargo,” New York Times, August 12, 1994, p. A 1.
  • 12. Clinton, My Life, p. 667.
  • 13. Tim Weiner, “Clinton Withholds Bosnia Data from Congress,” New York Times, April 17, 1996, p. A 1.
  • 14. Silber and Little, Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation, p. 350.
  • 15. P.W. Singer, Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003), pp. 127-129.
  • 16. Roger Cohen, “After Aiding Croatian Army, U.S. Now Seeks to Contain It,” New York Times, October 28, 1995, p. A 5 and Clinton, My Life, pp. 666-667.
  • 17. Silber and Little, Yugoslavia: Death ofa Nation, pp. 352-354.
  • 18. Robert C. Owen, ed., Deliberate Force: A Case Study in Effective Air Campaign (Montgomery, AL: Air University Press, 2000), pp.506-515.
  • 19. Holbrooke, To End a War, p. 106.
  • 20. Bill Clinton’s 950-page political memoir, My Life, cites the Balkans five times.
  • 21. Clinton, My Life, p. 950.
  • 22. Richard Holbrooke, To End a War (New York: Random House, 1998), p. 293.
  • 23. Holbrooke, To End a War, p. 214.
  • 24. The single best account of the negotiations is by the already cited book by Richard Holbrooke in To End a War, chapters 16 through 20.
  • 25. General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, November, 21, 1995, U.S. Department of State. Downloaded from http://www.state.gov/p7eur/rls/or/day- ton/52577.htm. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 26. Richard Holbrooke, “America, a European Power,” Foreign Affairs, 74, Issue 2 (March/April 1995), 40.
  • 27. Holbrooke, To End a War, p. 359. The italics are Holbrooke’s.
  • 28. Ibid., p. 357.
  • 29. Tim Judah, Kosovo: War and Revenge (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002), pp. 25-31 and 53-54.
  • 30. Noel Malcolm, Kosovo: A Short History (New York: New York University Press, 1998), p. 348.
  • 31. Tim Judah, Kosovo: War and Revenge (New Haven, CT: Yale Nota Bene, 2002), pp. 249-254.
  • 32. Sidney Blumenthal, The Clinton Wars (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003), p. 629.
  • 33. Strobe Talbott, The Russia Hand: A Memoir of Presidential Diplomacy (New York: Random House, 2002), p. 347.
  • 34. United Nations Resolution, 1199, October 28, 1998. Downloaded from http://www.un.org/press/en/1998/19981024.sc6588. html. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 35. Talbott, The Russia Hand, pp. 301-302.
  • 36. Ibid., p. 302.
  • 37. John Pilger, “What Really Happened at Rambouillet?” And What Else Is Being Kept under Wraps by Our Selective Media?” New Statesman., May 30, 1991, p. 1.
  • 38. Albright, Madam Secretary, p. 406.
  • 39. Clinton, My Life, p. 850.
  • 40. Wesley Clark, Waging Modern War (New York: Public Affairs, 2001), p. 135.
  • 41. Benjamin S. Lambeth, Transformation of American Air Power (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000), pp. 258 and 264.
  • 42. “In the President’s Words: ‘We Act to Prevent a Wider War,’” excerpts in the New York Times, March 25, 1999, p. A 6.
  • 43. Peter Riddell, Hug Them Close: Blair, Clinton, Bush, and the ‘Special Relationship’ (London: Politico’s Publishing, 2003),

pp.106-116.

  • 44. Katharine Q. Seelye, “Clinton Resists Renewed Calls for Ground Troops in Kosovo,” New York Times, May 19, 1999, p. A 10.
  • 45. Blumenthal, The Clinton Wars, p. 648.
  • 46. Jane Perlez, “Clinton and Joint Chiefs of Staff to Discuss Ground Invasion,” New York Times, June 2, 1999, p. A 14.
  • 47. Many experts attribute Serbia’s surrender to the threat of a ground invasion. See, for example, Clark, Waging Modern War, p. 425; Benjamin s. Lambeth, NATO’s Air War for Kosovo: A Strategic and Operational Assessment (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001), p. 76; and Ivo H. Daalder and Michael E. O’Hanlon, Winning Ugly: NATO’s War to Save Kosovo (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2000), pp. 158-160, 214.
  • 48. Clark, Waging Modern War, p. 394.
  • 49. Jim Hoagland, “The Trouble With Playing Global Cop,” Washington Post, September 2, 1999, p. A 39; Kay Bailey Hutchinson, “The Case for Strategic Sense,” Washington Post, September 13, 1999, p. A 27; and Michael Mandelbaum, “Foreign

Policy as Social Work,” Foreign Affairs, 75, no. 1 (January/ February, 1996), 16-32.

50. Jamsheed Marker, East Timor: A Memoir of the Negotiations for Independence (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 2003),

pp.202-210.

  • 51. Madeleine Albright, Madam Secretary (New York: Miramax Books,
  • 2003) , p. 272.
  • 52. David von Drehel and R. Jeffrey Smith, “U.S. Strikes Iraq for Plot to Kill Bush,” Washington Post, June 27, 1993, p. A 1.
  • 53. Richard Butler, The Greatest Threat: Iraq, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and the Crisis of Global Security (New York: Public Affairs, 2000), pp. 234-241.
  • 54. No author, “Clinton’s Statement: We are Delivering a Powerful Message to Saddam,” New York Times, December 17, 1998, p. A 16.
  • 55. Blumenthal, The Clinton Wars, pp. 545-546.
  • 56. T.R. Reid, The United States of Europe: The New Superpower and The End of American Supremacy (New York: Penguin, 2005), pp. 10-11, 22-25,and 227.
  • 57. Rachel Ehrenfeld, Funding Evil: How Terrorism is Financed—and How to Stop It (Chicago: Bonus Books, 2005), pp. 101 and 116.
  • 58. Hyland, Clinton’s World, p. 203.
  • 59. Richard A. Clarke, Against All Enemies (New York: Free Press,
  • 2004) , pp. 214-226 and 227-229 and Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, The Age of Sacred Terror (New York: Random House, 2002), pp. 350-383.
  • 60. Osama bin Laden 1996 fatwa, “Declarations of War against the Americans Occupying the Lands of the Two Holy Places.” Downloaded from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/ military-july-dec96-fatwa_1996/. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 61. “U.S. Missiles pound targets in Afghanistan, Sudan,” CNN.com, August 20, 1998. Downloaded from http://www.cnn.com/ US/9808/20/us.strikes.01/. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 62. For an explanation of the U.S. military’s reluctance to carry the fight to al Qaeda, see Richard H. Shultz Jr.’s “Showstoppers: Nine Reasons why we never sent our Special Operations Forces after al Qaeda before 9/11,” Weekly Standard, 9, no. 19 (January 26, 2004), 26-29.
  • 63. The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attack Upon The United States (New York: W.W. Norton, 2004), p. 139.
  • 64. Clinton, My Life, p. 935.
  • 65. Michael Muskal, “Bill Clinton: ‘i could have killed’ Osama bin Laden in 1998,” Los Angeles Times, August 1, 2014, p. A 3.
 
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