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Notes

  • 1. President Bush’s Second Inaugural Address, January 20, 2005. Downloaded from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story. php?storyId=4460172. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 2. James Mann, Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush’s War Cabinet (New York: Viking, 2004), pp. 258-259.
  • 3. Charles Tripp, A History of Iraq (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2nd ed., 2002), pp. 278-279.
  • 4. Stefan Halper and Jonathan Clarke, America Alone: The NeoConservatives and the Global Order (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 146-147.
  • 5. Jon Meacham, Destiny and Power: The American Odyssey of George Herbert Walker Bush (New York: Random House, 2015), pp. 625 and 740.
  • 6. David Wurmser, Tyranny’s Ally: America’s Failure to Defeat Saddam Hussein (Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1999), p. 137.
  • 7. Steven Lee Myers and Eric Schmitt, “Iraq Rebuilt Bombed Arms Plant, Officials Say,” New York Times, January 22, 2001, p. A 1.
  • 8. March Lynch, “Smart Sanctions: Rebuilding Consensus or Maintaining Conflict?” Global Policy, June 28, 2001. Downloaded from https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/ 170-sanctions/42169.html. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 9. Condoleezza Rice, “Promoting the National Interest,” Foreign Affairs, 79, no. 1 (January/February, 2000), 61.
  • 10. Robert S. Litwak, Regime Change: U.S. Strategy through the Prism of9/11(Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2007), p. 125.
  • 11. Richard A. Clarke, Against All Enemies: Inside America’s War on Terror (New York: Free Press, 2004), pp. 229-240.
  • 12. George W. Bush, Decision Points (New York: Crown Publishers, 2010), p. 127.
  • 13. Ibid., p. 151.
  • 14. Bob Woodward, Plan of Attack (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004), pp. 30, 81-82, and 98.
  • 15. George W. Bush, State of the Union Address, January 29, 2002, in National Archives and Records Administration. Downloaded from http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/ 2002/01/20020129-11.html. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 16. Thom Shanker and David E. Sanger, “U.S. Envisions Blueprint On Iraq Including Big Invasion Next Year,” New York Times, April 28, 2002, p. A1; Eric Scmitt, “U.S. Plans For Iraq Is Said To Include Attack On 3 Sides,” New York Times, July 5, 2002, p. A1 and Thomas E. Ricks, “Timing, Tactics On Iraq War Disputed,” Washington Post, August 1, 2002, p. A1.
  • 17. John Barry and Roy Gutman, “Rumors of War,” Newsweek, August 12, 2002, p.36.
  • 18. Eric Schmitt and Joel Brinkley, “State Dept. Study Foresaw Troubles Now Plaguing Iraq,” New York, October 19, 2003, p. 1.
  • 19. Philip Stephens, Tony Blair: The Making of a World Leader (New York: Viking, 2004), pp. 198 and 200.
  • 20. David E. Sanger, “In Reichstag, Bush Condemns Terror as New Despotism,” New York Times, May 2004, p. A 1.
  • 21. Editorial, “The Need for One Voice on Iraq,” Economist, July 30, 2002, p. 14.
  • 22. White House, President Bush Delivers Graduation Speech at West Point, June 1, 2002. Downloaded from http://georgewbush- whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/06/20020601-3. html. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 23. Among media coverage, The Washington Post, almost alone, understood the significance of the president’s attack doctrine. See its editorial, “Taking the Offensive,” Washington Post, June 4, 2002, p. A 16.
  • 24. Julia Preston, “U.N. Spy Photo Shows New Building at Iraq Nuclear Sites,” New York Times, September 6, 2002, p. A 1.
  • 25. President’s Speech to the United Nations General Assembly, September 12, 2002. Downloaded from http://georgewbush- whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020912-1. html. Accessed October 1, 2015.
  • 26. Barton Gellman, Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency (New York: Penguin, 2008), pp. 215-222 and 227.
  • 27. Patrick E. Tyler, “Britain’s Case: Iraqi Program to Amass Arms Is ‘Up and Running,’” New York Times, September 25, 2002, p. A 1.
  • 28. Commission on Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, March 2005. Downloaded from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/wmd/about. html. Accessed July 10, 2016.
  • 29. National Security Strategy, The White House, September 17, 2001. Downloaded from http://georgewbush-whitehouse. archives.gov/nsc/nss/2002/. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 30. Peter Slevin, “Analysts: New Strategy Courts Unseen Dangers,” Washington Post, September 22, 2002, p. A 1 and Judith Miller, “Keeping U.S. No. 1: Is It Wise? Is It New?” New York Times, October 26, 2002, p. A 19.
  • 31. John Lewis Gaddis, Surprise, Security and the American Experience (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), pp. 15-20.
  • 32. Norman Graebner, Foundations of American Foreign Policy: A Realist Appraisal from Franklin to McKinley (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1985), p. 354.
  • 33. Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, The Age of Sacred Terror (New York: Random House, 2002), pp. 353-365.
  • 34. Cited in Bob Graham, Intelligence Matters (New York: Radom House, 2004), p. 181.
  • 35. Ibid., pp. 181-184.
  • 36. Karen De Young, “Bush Cites Urgent Iraqi Threat,” Washington Post, October 8, 2002, p. A 1.
  • 37. Richard Morin and Claudia Deane, “71 % Of Americans Support War, Poll Shows,” Washington Post, March 19, 2003, p. A 14.
  • 38. Jim VandeHei and Juliet Eilperin, “Congress Passes Iraq Resolution,” Washington Post, October 11, 2002, p. A 14.
  • 39. Walter Pincus and Karen DeYoung, “U.S. Sets Late January Decision on Iraq War,” Washington Post, December 19, 2002, p. A 1.
  • 40. Betsy Pisik, “U.S., U.N. Spar over Iraq Report,” Washington Times, December 13, 2002, p. 1.
  • 41. Serge Schmemann, “Bush Warns Hussein again but Sidesteps any ‘Deadline,’” New York Times, January 15, 2003, p. A 1.
  • 42. Hans Blix, Disarming Iraq (New York: Pantheon Books, 2004), pp.135-143.
  • 43. Julia Preston, “U.N. Inspectors Says Iraq Fall Short on Cooperation,” New York Times, January 28, 2003, p. A 1.
  • 44. George W. Bush “State of the Union Address,” Washington Post, January 28, 2003. Downloaded from http://www.washington- post.com/wp-srv/onpolitics/transcripts/bushtext_012803.html. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 45. This valid legal argument was made by Kim Holmes, “Uncomfortable Truths: Explaining away Iraq’s Real WMD,” Washington Times, October 72, 2014, p. A 14.
  • 46. The full extent of the harm caused to US soldiers by the chemical shells was commented on by a journalist in 2014. See C.J. Chivers, “The Secret Casualties of Iraq’s Abandoned Chemical Weapons,” New York Times, October 14, 2014, p. A 1.
  • 47. Judith Miller, The Story: A Reporter’s Journey (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), pp. 145-149 and 216-219.
  • 48. For a summary of the report, see Fred Hiatt, “‘Bush Lied’?: If Only It Were That Simple,” Washington Post, June 9, 2008, p. A 20.
  • 49. Scott Shane, “Ex-C.I.A. Official Says Iraq Data Was Distorted,” New York Times, February 11, 2006, p. A 6.
  • 50. Paul Pillar, Intelligence and U.S. Foreign Policy: Iraq, 9/H, and Misguided Reform (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011), pp.142-143 and 145-157.
  • 51. Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, March 31, 2005. Downloaded from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/wmd/about. html. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 52. Laurence H. Silberman, “The Dangerous Lie That ‘Bush Lied,’” Wall Street Journal, February 9, 2015, p. A 13.
  • 53. Joseph C. Wilson, “What I Didn’t Find in Africa,” New York Times, July 6, 2003, p. A 16.
  • 54. Joseph C. Wilson, The Politics of Truth (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2004), pp. 325-341.
  • 55. Craig S. Smith and Richard Bernstein, “3 NATO Members and Russia Resist U.S. On Iraq Plans,” New York Times, February 11, 2003, p. A 1.
  • 56. Robert Kagan, Of Paradise and Power. America and Europe in the New World Order (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003), p. 3.
  • 57. John Diamond, “White House Getting under Europe’s Skin,” USA Today, February 21, 2003, p. A 9.
  • 58. For more information on the Security Council wrangling, see Woodward, Plan of Attack, pp. 167, 174-184, and 221-226.
  • 59. Elisabeth Bumiller, “Bush’s Tutor and Disciple: Condoleezza Rice,” New York Times, November 17, 2005, p. A 1.
  • 60. Kenneth Adelman, “Cakewalk in Iraq,” Washington Post, February 13, 2002, p. A 27 and gloatingly again in “‘Cakewalk’ Revisited,” Washington Post, April 10, 2003, p. A 29.
  • 61. Cited in Anthony H. Cordesman, The Iraq War: Strategy, Tactics, and Military Lessons (Washington, DC: CSIS Press, 2004), p. 123.
  • 62. Reginald Dale, “Bush Never Said ‘Mission Accomplished,’” Center for Strategic and International Studies. Downloaded from http:// csis.org/blog/bush-never-said-%E2%80%9Cmission- accomplished%E2%80%9D. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 63. Thomas E. Ricks, Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq (New York: Penguin Press, 2006), pp. 147-161.
  • 64. Robert M. Gates, Duty: Memoirs of a Secretary of State (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014), pp. 120-125.
  • 65. Peter van Buren, We Meant Well: How I Helped Lose the Battle for the Hearts and Minds of the Iraqi People (New York: Metropolitan, 2011), pp. 117-121.
  • 66. L. Paul Bremer III, My Year In Iraq: The Struggle To Build A Future of Hope (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006), pp. 39-42, 44-45, and 260-261.
  • 67. Jim Michaels, A Chance in Hell: The Men Who Triumphed over Iraq’s Deadliest City and Turned the Tide of War (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2010), pp. 91-94.
  • 68. For casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan, see icasualties.org. Downloaded from http://www.icasualties.org/iraq/. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  • 69. The Iraq Study Group Report: The Way Forward—A New Approach (New York: Filibust Imprint, 2006), pp. 82-88.
  • 70. Kimberly Kagan, The Surge: A Military History (New York: Encounter Books, 2009), p. 28.
  • 71. Michael R. Gordon and Bernard E. Trainor, The Endgame: The Inside Story of the Struggle for Iraq, From George W. Bush to Barack Obama (New York: Pantheon Books, 2013), pp. 675-680 and Peter R. Mansoor, Surge: My Journey with General David Petraeus and the Remaking ofthe Iraq War (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013), pp. 260-270.
  • 72. Rice, No Higher Honor, pp. 401-403.
  • 73. Steven R. Weisman, “Powell Says Ukraine Vote Was Full of Fraud,” New York Times, November 25, 2004, p. A 10.
  • 74. Oleksandr Sushko and Olena Prystayko, “Western Influence,” in Revolution in Orange: The Origins of Ukraine’s Democratic Breakthrough, ed. Anders Aslund and Michael McFaul (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for Peace, 2006), pp. 140-141.
  • 75. Edward Lucas, The New ColdWar (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), pp. 70-71.
  • 76. Ibid., p. 173.
  • 77. Condoleezza Rice, “Remarks at the American University in Cairo,” June 20, 2005. Department of State Archives. Downloaded from http://2001-2009.state.gov/secretary/rm/2005/48328.htm. Accessed July 16, 2016.
  • 78. James Mann, George W Bush (New York: Times Books, 2015), p. 107.
  • 79. Brent Scowcroft, “Don’t Attack Saddam,” Wall Street Journal, August 15, 2002, p. A 17.
  • 80. Norman Podhoretz, “The Case for Bombing Iran,” Commentary, June 1, 2007, p. 23 and Norman Podhoretz, World War IV: The Long Struggle against Islamofascism (New York: Doubleday, 2007), pp. 182 and 185.
  • 81. Rice, No Higher Honor, pp. 420-424.
  • 82. Bush, Decision Points, pp. 415-420.
  • 83. Jacob Heilbrunn, They Knew They Were Right: The Rise of the Neocons (New York: Doubleday, 2008), p. 274.
  • 84. Victor Cha and David C. Kang, Nuclear North Korea: A Debate on Engagement Strategies (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), pp. 130-148.
  • 85. Gordon Corera, Shopping for Bombs: Nuclear Proliferation, Global Insecurity, and the Rise and Fall of the A.Q. Khan Network (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 92-93, 99, 101-102.
  • 86. David E. Sanger, “Bush Urges Quick Action on North Korea,” New York Times, October 10, 2006, p. A 1.
  • 87. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1718, October 14, 2006. Downloaded from http://www.un.org/sc/commit- tees/1718. Accessed December 15, 2014.
  • 88. Christopher R. Hill, Outpost: Life on the Frontlines of American Diplomacy (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2014), pp. 252-268, 279-285, and 309-310.
  • 89. Dick Cheney, In My Time: A Personal and Political Memoir (New York: Threshold Editions, 2011), p. 487.
  • 90. Julie Flint and Alex de Waal, Darfur: A New History ofa Long War (London: Zed Books, 2008), pp. 123, 179-183.
  • 91. House of Commons Resolution, 467 in the 108th Congress, July
  • 22, 2004. Downloaded from https://www.congress.gov/

bill/108th-congress/house-concurrent-resolution/467. Accessed September 15, 2015.

  • 92. UN Resolution 1769, dated July 31, 2007. Downloaded from http://www.un.org/press/en/2007/sc9089.doc.htm. Accessed September 15, 2015.
  • 93. Rice, No Higher Honor, p. 585.
  • 94. Ronald D. Asmus, A Little War That Shook the World (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp. 87, 146-149.
  • 95. Asmus, The Little War That Shook the World, pp. 90-91.
  • 96. President Clinton’s point man on Russia in the 1990s dissected the twisted logic and self-serving Russian statements. Strobe Talbott, “Russia’s Ominous New Doctrine?” Washington Post, August 15,
  • 2008,p.26.
  • 97. “Poll: More disapprove of Bush than any other president,” CNN Poll, May 1, 2008. Downloaded from http://www.cnn. com/2008/POLITICS/05/01/bush.poll. Accessed September 29, 2015.
  • 98. Dan Eggen, “Bush’s Overseas Policies Begin Resembling Obama’s,” Washington Post, September 15, 2008, p. A 2.
 
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