The Modern Centers of International Labor Migration

The international labor migration in modern conditions has got character of the global process. Migration captures the majority of the countries of the world.

The quantity of the countries involved in the international migratory process, has essentially increased, first of all at the expense of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as CIS. According to the experts' forecast, the quantity of migrants which are accepted by the developed countries, will remain at high level in the nearest decades.

In 2011, countries leading in emigration were Mexico, India, China, Russia, Ukraine and, in turn, countries leading in immigration were the USA, Russia, Germany, Saudi Arabia and Canada.

As the major centers of gravity of foreign workers, which define modern directions of the international labor migration, can be identified: North and South America, Western Europe, South-East and Western Asia. In beginning of the 21st century annual inflow averaged 2,3 million people, 1,4 million people of whom went to the North America, and 800 million people - to Europe. The largest centers of attraction of migrants are the USA and Canada (their readiness to accept foreigners is estimated accordingly in 1,1 million people and 211 thousand people accordantly).

The defying competition ones are countries of Western Europe, where the aggregate number of the people captured by migration during the post-war period, is estimated in 30 million people. It is characteristic that last 20 years over 1 million people annually moves, looking for a job, from one European country to another, i.e. take part in a intercontinental interstate exchange of labor. For modern European migrations such directions are characteristic: from less developed countries of Southern and Eastern Europe (Greece, Spain, Turkey, Poland, Hungary, etc.) to the advanced countries of Western and Northern Europe (France, England, Germany, Sweden, etc.); from the countries of North Africa, India, Pakistan to the West European labor market; labor movements from one advanced country to another.

Emigration in the countries of the European Union has increased. Number of the foreigners living today in the EU countries reaches 17 - 21million people, 1214 million people of whom (about 4 % of the population of EU) arrived from the countries which are not members of the Union: 29 % of migrants are citizens of Turkey and former Yugoslavia; 20,7 % — citizens of the African countries, 7 % — Americas, 13,6 % — Asia, 7,8 % — the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Among the EU countries which have accepted the foreigners, the first places occupy: Germany (over 7 million people); France (about 5 million people) and Great Britain (about 3 million people). The main countries of emigration to Germany are Turkey, the countries of the former Yugoslavia, Italy, Greece and Poland; to France - Algeria, Morocco and Portugal; to Great Britain - India.

The important centre of gravity of labor is Australia. The area of Persian Gulf became new point of concentration of international groups of labor, where in 1975 the aggregate number of nonlocal population in 6 countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) id 2 million people, and in the beginning of the 21st century - 4 million people, or about 40 % of all population. The most part of the Arabian emigrants arrives from Palestine, Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Jordan.

On the African continent the centers of gravity are the countries of Southern and Central Africa. The aggregate number of migrants in all countries of Africa reaches 6 million people

Along with Western Europe, for last two decades the new centers of gravity of foreign workers reflecting labor migration from one developing country to another, moving of foreign labor from more developed to less developed countries, which in general was not characteristic for interstate migration in the past. These include, in the first place, "the new industrial countries" of Asian-Pacific region. And in Latin America they are Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil.

The largest direction of migration in the world is the Mexico - United States one: in 2011 the number of migrants amounted to 11.6 million people. The next ones by the volume are: Russia - Ukraine, Ukraine - Russia, Bangladesh - India; in these directions, many indigenous people were migrants without moving to other countries, as a result of the establishment of new state borders [14].

As regards the structure of migrating labor, there are following main regularities. Structure of labor, which migrates to industrially developed countries and between the developed countries, is characterized by two moments.

The first one: the necessity of a high share of the highly skilled and scientific personnel for development of new directions of scientific and technical progress. Industrially developed countries stimulate such moving of labor with the right of reception of the status of the constant resident. So, the share of foreigners among engineers in the USA is over 10 %, doctors - over 20 %. "The brain drain" in the USA occurs from both the developing countries and the countries with economies in transition. Within the EU the highly-skilled personnel concentrates in the most developed countries.

The second one: there is a considerable share of labor for branches with physically heavy, low qualification and unattractive kinds of work. For example, in France emigrants make 25 % of all occupied in building, 1/3 - in motor industry. In Belgium they make half of all miners, in Switzerland - 40 % of building workers.

Migration of labor between developing countries is mainly migration between new industrial countries and OPEC member countries, on the one hand, to other developing countries, on the other hand. The basic structure of migrants from these countries is semi-skilled labor. Rather small flow of skilled labor goes from the developed countries to developing ones.

For migration within former world system of a socialism is characteristic the moving of labor from the countries with less favorable social and economic conditions to the countries with more stable economy and social conditions.

The consequences of International Labor Migration

Consequences of the international labor migration are various enough. They show up in the countries of emigration, as well as in the countries of immigration, bringing certain benefits and losses to both parties. However, as analysis shows, there are more benefits obtaining by countries of immigration, and losses exceed benefits in countries of emigration. The world as a whole wins, as migration freedom allows people to move to the countries where they can bring more significant contribution to world production.

The countries of immigration obtain following benefits:

a) in the country of skilled labor immigration, rates of growth of economy are accelerated: additional demand for the goods and services of immigrants stimulates growth of production and creates additional employment in the country of their stay;

b) there is the competitiveness increase of the goods made by the country owing to the reduction of the production costs connected with lower price of foreign labor and possibility to contain growth of a salary of local workers due to increased competition on a labor market;

c) the host country wins at the expense of the taxes which size depends on qualifying and age structure of immigrants. The highly skilled experts already knowing language of host country become large taxpayers at once;

d) the considerable income brings a transfer of knowledge from the emigration country. When the host country imports the skilled labor and scientists, it saves expenditure for education and professional trainings. So, 23 % of members of National academy of Sciences and 33% of Nobel Prize winners are immigrants in the USA;

e) foreign workers are often considered as the certain shock-absorber on a case of growth of unemployment: they can be fired first of all;

f) immigrants improve a demographic picture of the developed countries, suffering population aging. In Germany, France and Sweden 10 % of all newborns appear in families of immigrants, in Switzerland — 24 %, in Luxembourg — 38 %.

The countries of emigration also obtain certain benefits:

a) decrease in a rate of unemployment and, as consequence, - social pressure in the country;

b) free labor training for countries of emigration (new professional skills, knowledge of high technology, the work management, etc.);

c) reception of incomes in hard currency as a result of remittances of emigrants.

The remittances of migrants are a considerable part of currency receipts of states that positively influences national income of the state. It is one part of consequences of migration for countries of emigration. On the other part, these countries sustain essential losses from labor export: a) reduction of tax revenues because of reduction of number of taxpayers; b) the constant migration cased an outflow of the qualified, initiative workers, called "the brain drain", leading to slowing down the rates of increase of scientific and technical and cultural level of the country. By estimates of experts, these losses reach about 76 billion dollars.

Such measures of the state can be possible ways of removal of negative consequences of labor emigration:

• an emigration interdiction;

• the tax introduction for the "brain drain" to compensate the state investments in emigrants;

• creation of the high profit branches which are carrying out export of

labor.

 
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