Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow viewed people as basically trustworthy, self-protecting, selfgoverning, and, when put to the test, able to come “together [and] put forth their utmost efforts.” Further, he believed that individuals’ innate tendencies are toward growth.

According to Maslow’s theory, there are five types of needs that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. Table 7.3 shows these needs, which are arranged in hierarchical order and usually shown as a pyramid. The path is to satisfy one set of needs at a time, beginning with the physiological need, then move upward to self-actualization.

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Physiological needs

These cover the basic functions of comfort and maintenance of the body, such as food, drink, heat, shelter, sleep, and health.

Safety needs

These refer not just to physical safety and protection from harm, but also to such areas as financial security, employment, medical and legal assistance, and all means that maintain stability.

Belonging needs

These indicate the need for human contact: family, friends, relationships, teams, and general contact in society.

Esteem needs

These recognize the need for status, power, prestige, acknowledgment, respect, and responsibility. Such requirements provide individuals with a higher position within a group.

Self-actualization needs

After all the previous needs have been satisfied, the top of the pyramid deals with the individual’s need to reach for his or her full potential and strive for individual destiny.

By moral influence I mean that which causes the people to be in harmony with their leaders, so that they will accompany them in life and unto death without fear of mortal peril.

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