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Inflammatory Disorders of the Nervous System: Pathogenesis, Immunology, and Clinical Management


Emerging Roles of Endothelial Cells in Multiple Sclerosis Pathophysiology and TherapyNormal BBB Anatomy and PhysiologyTransport Across the BBBAdherens Junctions in BBBTight Junctions in BBBOther Junctional ComponentsCerebral Endothelial Junctional Disorganization in MSMetabolic and Hypoxic Disturbances of CNS in MSEndothelial Energy MetabolismEndothelial MicroparticlesEndothelial Targets in MS TherapyInterferon-pChemokinesEndothelial Cells Represent Important Targets in MSNatalizumab (Tysabri™)TecfideraFingolimodCytokines and Chemokines in Endothelial Pathogenesis of MSAbnormal Flow and MS PathophysiologyReferencesMultiple Sclerosis: Clinical Features, Immunopathogenesis, and TreatmentHistoryClinical Features of Multiple SclerosisDiagnosis of Multiple SclerosisPrognosisNeuroimaging in Multiple SclerosisOther Laboratory MeasuresEpidemiologyPathology of Multiple SclerosisPathogenesis of Multiple SclerosisGeneticsMyelin BiochemistryImmunologyInterleukin-17 and Type 17 Helper T CellsAdhesion MoleculesTreatment of Multiple SclerosisSymptomatic TreatmentMobilityTreatment of Acute ExacerbationsReduction of Multiple Sclerosis Exacerbations and DisabilityFuture Directions in TreatmentRehabilitationReferencesHIV Infection of Human Nervous System Neurologic Manifestations, Diagnosis, and TreatmentClinical ManifestationsAcute Seroconversion: CD4+ Lymphocyte Count >500/mm3HIV-Associated Neurologic Manifestations: CD4+ Lymphocyte Count 200-500/mm3AIDS-Related Neurologic Complications at CD4+ Lymphocyte Other AIDS-Related Neurologic ManifestationsImmune Reconstitution Inflammatory SyndromeHIV-Associated Neurocognitive DisordersHeadache in HIV PatientsSleep Disturbances in HIV-Infected PatientsEtiology of Neurologic Manifestations in HIVNeuropathologyEpidemiologyPreventionDifferential DiagnosisDiagnostic WorkupTreatmentReferencesCentral Nervous System Vasculitis: Immunopathogenesis, Clinical Aspects, and Treatment OptionsPrimary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System (PACNS) Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome (RCVS) Giant Cell (Temporal) Arteritis Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN) Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-Associated CNS Vasculitis Takayasu Disease Neuro-Behcet's Disease Cogan's Syndrome Susac Syndrome Cryoglobulinemia-Associated CNS Vasculitis CNS Vasculitis in Association with Connective Tissue Disorders Infection-Related CNS Vasculitis Neoplastic-Related CNS Vasculitis ReferencesNeurosarcoidosis: Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and ManagementEpidemiologyClinical ManifestationsSleep Disorders in Neurosarcoidosis PatientsNeuropathologyMicroscopic AppearanceDifferential DiagnosisDiagnosisTreatmentReferencesCell-Derived Microparticles/Exosomes in NeuroinflammationFundamentals and Terminology IntroductionTerminologiesExosomes: Distinctly Different?Functions, Old and NewFormation and FateMP in Neuroinflammation: Findings from the Authors' Group IntroductionMP in Vascular DementiaEarly Findings on MP in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)MP-Associated Bioactive Agents in NeuroinflammationMicro-RNA (miRNA)CytokinesMatrix Metaloproteinases (MMPs)Heat Shock Proteins (HSP)MP as Immune Complex (IC) and ComplementBioactive LipidsCell-Cell Signals ("Cross Talk")Recent Advances: MP in Selected Neuroinflammatory States MP in Brain Injury and Neurovascular DysfunctionMP and Infectious Diseases of the CNSMultiple Sclerosis (MS)Miscellaneous OthersMP in Protein-Misfolding Diseases Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)MP, a-Synuclein, and Parkinson's Disease (PD)Therapeutic Strategies Involving MPTherapeutic MP/Exosomes Crossing the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB)Statin Therapy and HypothesisStem Cell-Derived MP/ExosomesInhibition of Complement (C) SystemConcluding CommentsReferencesAcute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: Clinical Features, Pathophysiology, and Clinical ManagementClinical FeaturesImmunopathogenesis and NeuropathologyDiagnosisClinical ManagementMS Versus ADEMReferencesAutoimmune Encephalitis: Clinical Features, Pathophysiology, and TreatmentHistoryEpidemiologyPathophysiology and Clinical PresentationDiagnostic ApproachTreatment and OutcomeSummaryReferencesNeuromyelitis Optica: Immunopathogenesis, Clinical Manifestations, and TreatmentsImmunopathophysiologyClinical FeaturesInvestigationsDiagnosis and PrognosisTreatmentReferencesImmunopathogenesis and Treatment of Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating PolyneuropathyGuillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS)PathologyImmunopathogenesisAnimal ModelsTreatment of GBSSupportive TreatmentRespiratory careDysautonomiaImmunomodulatory TreatmentsPlasma Exchange (PLEX)Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG)Oncoming TreatmentsChronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)Clinical ManifestationsCIDP VariantsPathologyImmunopathogenesisCellular ImmunityHumoral ImmunityAnimal ModelsTreatmentCorticosteroidsIntravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG)Plasma Exchange (PLEX)Other TreatmentsSupportive TherapiesReferencesMyasthenia Gravis: Clinical Features, Immunology, and TherapiesEpidemiologyPathogenesisEffector Mechanisms of Anti-AChR Antibodies (Anti-AChR Abs)Role of CD4+ T Cells in MGRole of CD4+ T-Cell Subtypes and Cytokines in MG and EAMG (Experimental Autoimmune MG)Other Autoantigens in MGImmunological TestClinical FeatureClinical ClassificationDiagnosisSerological TestingElectrophysiological TestsManagementAcetylcholinesterase InhibitorsShort-Term Immunomodulating TherapiesPlasma Exchange (PE)Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy (IVIg)CorticosteroidsNonsteroidal Immunosuppressive AgentsSurgical ManagementPrognosisCongenital Myasthenic SyndromesDiagnosis/TestingManagementGenetic CounselingThe Future and MyastheniaReferencesIdiopathic Inflammatory MyopathiesDermatomyositisPolymyositisInclusion Body MyositisImmune-Mediated Necrotizing MyopathyTreatment of Inflammatory MyopathiesTreatment of Inclusion Body MyositisSummaryReferencesThe Venous Connection: The Role of Veins in Neurodegenerative DiseaseContextVeins and NeurodegenerationRegulation of the Intracranial FluidsIntracranial PulsatilityCSF Pulsatility, Ventricular Reflux and Periventricular ChangesDiscussionReferences
 
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