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Home arrow Environment arrow Inflammatory Disorders of the Nervous System: Pathogenesis, Immunology, and Clinical Management
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Emerging Roles of Endothelial Cells in Multiple Sclerosis Pathophysiology and Therapy

J. Winny Yun, Alireza Minagar, and J. Steven Alexander

Introduction

Normal BBB Anatomy and Physiology

The internal milieu of the brain is isolated from solutes and cells in the bloodstream, creating an immunologically and pharmacologically “privileged” compartment owing to the BBB. The BBB is a highly organized and strictly regulated multicellular system, creating physical, chemical, and metabolic barriers, which has at its heart the CEC. These closely apposed cells are integrated functionally and meta- bolically with pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons to regulate blood flow and exchange of materials via transporters, pores, and channels normally protecting the brain with disturbances during acute and chronic inflammatory responses.

J.W. Yun, BS

Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, LSU Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA

A. Minagar, MD

Departments of Neurology, LSU Health Sciences Center,

1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA

J.S. Alexander, PhD (*)

Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, LSU Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA

Departments of Neurology, LSU Health Sciences Center,

1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA e-mail: This email address is being protected from spam bots, you need Javascript enabled to view it

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

A. Minagar, J.S. Alexander (eds.), Inflammatory Disorders of the Nervous System, Current Clinical Neurology, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-51220-4_1

 
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