Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical Features, Immunopathogenesis, and Treatment

Alexis A. Lizarraga and William A. Sheremata

List of Abbreviations

ACTH Corticotrophin

APC Antigen-presenting cell

CIS Clinically isolated syndrome

CNS Central nervous system

CSF Cerebrospinal fluid

CT Computerized tomography

DIR Double inversion recovery

DTI Diffusion tensor imaging

EAE Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

EDSS Expanded disability status scale

GFAP Glial fibrillary acidic protein

HIV Human immunodeficiency virus

IL Interleukin

MBP Myelin basic protein

MHC Major histocompatibility class

MOG Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein

MRI Magnetic resonance imaging

MS Multiple sclerosis

NEDA No evidence of disease activity

PCR Polymerase chain reaction

PML Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

PPMS Primary progressive multiple sclerosis

RRMS Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus

A.A. Lizarraga, MD (*) • W.A. Sheremata, MD, FRCPC, FACP, FAAN Miller School of Medicine University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA e-mail: This email address is being protected from spam bots, you need Javascript enabled to view it

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

A. Minagar, J.S. Alexander (eds.), Inflammatory Disorders of the Nervous System, Current Clinical Neurology, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-51220-4_2


Great strides in understanding multiple sclerosis (MS) have been made in the areas of immunology, genetics, and most importantly treatment since the first publication of this volume. Advances in drug treatment of MS continue to provide newer, more convenient oral therapies, and potentially more effective options for patients. These areas have been given greater attention for students of this disorder.

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