Log in / Register
Home arrow Environment arrow Inflammatory Disorders of the Nervous System: Pathogenesis, Immunology, and Clinical Management


  • 1. Charcot JM. Histologie de la sclerose en plaques. Gaz Hop Paris. 1868;41:554-66.
  • 2. Compston A, Ebers G, Lassman H, McDonald I, Mathews B, Wekerle H. McAlpine’s multiple sclerosis. 3rd ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1988.
  • 3. Firth D. The case of sir Augustus d’Este. London: Cambridge University Press; 1947.
  • 4. Kurtzke JF. A reassessment of the distribution of multiple sclerosis. Part one. Acta Neurologica Scand. 1975;51:110-36.
  • 5. Kurtzke JF. A reassessment of the distribution of multiple sclerosis. Art two. Acta Neurologica Scand. 1975;51:137-57.
  • 6. Weinshenker BG, Bass B, Rice GPA, et al. The natural history of multiple sclerosis: a geographically based study. 1. Clinical course and disability. Brain. 1989;112:133-46.
  • 7. Schumacher GA, Beebe G, Kibler RF, Kurland LT, Kurtzke JF, McDowell F, Nagler B, Sibley W, Tourtellotte W, Willmon TL. Problems of experimental trials of therapy in multiple sclerosis: report by the panel on the evaluation of experimental trials of therapy in multiple sclerosis. Ann New York Academy of Sciences, NY. 1965;123:552-68.
  • 8. Poser CM, Paty DW, Scheinberg L, et al. New diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines for research protocols. Ann Neurol. 1983;13:227-31.
  • 9. McDonald WI, Compston A, Edan G, et al. Recommended diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines from the International Panel on the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2001;50:121-7.
  • 10. Polman CH, Reingold SC, Banwell B, Clanet M, Cohen JA, Flippi M, Fujihara K, Havrdova E, Hutchinson M, Kappos L, Lublin FD, Montalban X, O’Connor P, Sandberg-Wollheim M, Thompson AJ, Waubant E, Weinshenker B, Wolinsky JS. Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria. Ann Neurol. 2011;69(2):292-302.
  • 11. Noseworthy JH, Luccinetti C, Rodriguez M, Weinschenker BG. Multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:938-52.
  • 12. Leibowitz U, Halpern L, Alter M. Clinical studies of multiple sclerosis in Israel. 5. Progressive spinal syndromes and multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1967;17:988-92.
  • 13. Confavreux C, Vukusic S, Moreau T, Adeline P. Relapses and progression of disability in multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:1430-8.
  • 14. Pittock SJ, Mayr WT, McClelland RL, Jorgensen NW, Weigand SD, Noseworthy JH, Weinshenker BG, Rodriguez M. Change in MS-related disability in a population-based cohort: a 10-year follow-up study. Neurology. 2004;62:51-9.
  • 15. Berger J, Sheremata WA. Persistent neurological deficit in multiple sclerosis precipitated by hot bath test. JAMA. 1983;133:1224-6.
  • 16. Berger JR, Sheremata WA, Melmed E. Paroxysmal dystonia as the initial manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 1984;41:747-50.
  • 17. Ramagopalan S, Meier U, Goldacre R, Goldacre M. Co-associations of multiple sclerosis with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: record linkage studies. Presented at: ACTRIMS- ECTRIMS MS, Boston; 2014.
  • 18. Jacobs LD, Beck RW, Simon JH, Kinkel P, Brownscheidle CM, Murray TJ, Simonian NA, Slasor PJ, Sandrock AW, et al. Intramuscular interferon beta-1a therapy initiated during a first demyelinating event in multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:898-904.
  • 19. Goodin DS, Reder AT, Ebers GC, et al. Survival in MS: a randomized cohort study 21 years after the start of the pivotal IFNp-1b trial. Neurology. 2012;78(17):1315-22.
  • 20. Lublin FD, Reingold SC. Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: results of an international survey. National Multiple Sclerosis Society (USA) Advisory Committee on Clinical Trials of New Agents in Multiple Sclerosis. Neurology. 1996;46:907-11.
  • 21. Lublin FD, Reingold SC, Cohen JA, Cutter GR, Sprenson PS, Thompson AJ, Wolinsky JS, Balcer LJ, Banwell R, Barkhof F, Bebo Jr B, Calabresi PA, Clanet M, Comi G, Fox RJ, Freedman MS, Goodman AD, Inglese M, Kappos L, Kieseier BC, Lincoln JA, Lubetzki C, Miller AE, Montalban X, O’Connor PW, Petkau J, Pzzilli C, Rudick RA, Sormani MP, Stuve
  • 0, Waubant E, Polman CH. Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: the 2013 revisions. Neurology. 2014;83(3):278-86.
  • 22. Bornstein MB, Miller A, Slagle S, Weitzman M, Drexler E, Keilson M, Spada V, Weiss W, Appel S, Rolak L, et al. A placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized, two-center, pilot trial of Cop 1 in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1991;41:533-9.
  • 23. Thompson AJ, Montalban X, Barkhof F, Brochet B, Flippi M, Miller DH, Polman CH, Stevenson VL, McDonald WI. Diagnostic criteria for primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a position paper. Ann Neurol. 2000;47(6):831-5.
  • 24. Ontaneda D, Fox RJ, Chataway J. Clinical trials in progressive multiple sclerosis: lessons learned and future perspectives. Lancet Neurol. 2015;14(2):208-23.
  • 25. Wolinsky JS, Narayana PA, O’Connor P, Coyle PK, Ford C, Johnson K, Miller A, Pardo L, Kadosh S, Ladkani D. PROMiSe Trial Study Group. Glatiramer acetate in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: results of a multinational, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-control trial. Ann Neurol. 2007;61(1):14-24.
  • 26. Lassmann H. Multiple sclerosis: is there neurodegeneration independent from inflammation? J Neurol Sci. 2007;259(1-2):3-6.
  • 27. Frischer JM, Weigand SD, Guo Y, Kale N, Parisi JE, Pirko I, Mandrekar J, Bramow S, Metz
  • 1, Brack W, Lassmann H, Lucchinetti CF. Clinical and pathological insights into the dynamic nature of the white matter multiple sclerosis plaque. Ann Neurol. 2015;78:710-21.
  • 28. Cottrell DA, Kremenchutzky M, Rice GPA, et al. The natural history of multiple sclerosis: a geographically based study. The clinical features and natural history of primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Brain. 1999;122:625-89.
  • 29. Sheremata WA, Berger JR, Harrington Jr W, Ayyar R, Stafford JM, Defreitas E. Human lym- photropic (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy: a report of ten cases born in the United States. Arch Neurol. 1992;31:34-8.
  • 30. Biswas HH, Engstrom JW, Kaidarova Z, Garratty G, Gibble JW, Newman BH, Smith JW, Ziman A, Fridey JL, Sacher RA, Murphy EL. Neurologic abnormalities in HTLV-1 and HTLV-II infected individuals without overt myelopathy. Neurology. 2009;73(10):781-9.
  • 31. Lowis GW, Sheremata WA, Minagar A. Epidemiologic features of HTLV-II: serological and molecular evidence. Ann Epidemiol. 2002;12:46-66.
  • 32. Fink JK. Hereditary spastic paraplegia: the pace quickens. Ann Neurol. 2002;51:669-72.
  • 33. Sadovnick AD, Ebers GC. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: a critical overview. Can J Neurol Sci. 1993;20:17-9.
  • 34. Confavreux C, Hutchinson M, Hours MM, Cortinovis-Tourniaire P, Moreau T, et al. Rate of pregnancy-related relapse in multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:285-91.
  • 35. Voskuhl RR, Wang H, Wu TC, Sicotte NL, Nakamura K, Kurth F, Itoh N, BArdens J, Bernard JT, Corboy JR, Cross AH, Dhib-Jalbut S, Ford CC, Frohman EM, Giesser B, Jacobs D, Kasper LH, Lynch S, Parry G, RAcke MK, REder AT, Rose J, Wingerchuk DM, MacKenzie-Graham AJ, Arnold DL, Tseng CH, Elashoff R. Estriol combined with glat- iramer acetate for women with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo- controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet Neurol. 2016;15(1):35-46.
  • 36. Confavreux C. Infections and the risk of relapse in multiple sclerosis. (Editorial). Brain. 2002;125:933-4.
  • 37. Warren S, Greenhill S, Warren KG. Emotional stress and the development of multiple sclerosis: case-control evidence of a relationship. J Chronic Dis. 1982;35:821-31.
  • 38. Grant I, Brown GW, Harris T, McDonald WI, Patterson T, Trimble MR. Severely threatening events and marked life difficulties preceding onset or exacerbation of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1989;52:8-13.
  • 39. Warren S, Warren KG, Cockerill R. Emotional stress and coping in multiple sclerosis and exacerbations. J Psychosom Res. 1991;35:37-47.
  • 40. Mohr DC, Goodkin DE, Bacchetti P, Boudewyn AC, Huang L, Marietta P, Cheuk W, Dee B. Psychological stress and he subsequent appearance of new brain MRI lesions in MS. Neurology. 2000;55:55-61.
  • 41. Scalfari A, Neuhaus A, Degenhardt A, Rice GP, Muraro PA, DAumer M, Ebers GC. The natural history of multiple sclerosis, a geographically based study 10: relapses and long-term disability. Brain. 2010;133:1914-29.
  • 42. Lublin FD, Baier M, Gutter G. Effect of relapses on development of multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2003;61:1528-32.
  • 43. Cala LA, Mastaglia FL, Black JL. Computerized tomography of brain and optic nerve in multiple sclerosis: observation in 100 patients including serial studies in 16. J Neurol Sci. 1978;36:411-26.
  • 44. Hershey LA, Gado MH, Trotter JL. Computerized tomography in the diagnostic evaluation of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 1979;5:32-9.
  • 45. Barrett L, Drayer B, Shin C. High-resolution computerized tomography in the diagnostic evaluation of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 1985;17:33-8.
  • 46. Bradley WG, Walauch Y, Yadley RA, Wycoff RR. Comparison of CT and MR in 400 patients with suspected disease of the brain and cervical spinal cord. Radiology. 1984;152:895-702.
  • 47. Sheldon JJ, Siddharthan R, Tobias J, Sheremata WA, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of multiple sclerosis: comparison with clinical, paraclinical, laboratory and CT examination. AJNR. 1985;6:683-90.
  • 48. Jacobs L, Kinkel WR, Polachini I, Kinkel RP. Correlations of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography, and clinical profiles in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1986;36:27-34.
  • 49. Honig LS, Siddharthan R, Sheremata WA, Sheldon JJ, Sazant A. Multiple sclerosis: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with cerebrospinal fluid findings. Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1988;51:27-280.
  • 50. Fox R et al. Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers annual meeting. Indianapolis; 2015.
  • 51. Seewann A, Kooi EJ, Pouwels PJ, Wattjes MP, van der Valk P, Barkhof F, Polman CH, Geurts JJ. Postmortem verification of MS cortical lesion detection with 3D DIR. Neurology. 2012;78(5):302-8.
  • 52. Honig LS, Sheremata WA. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord lesions in multiple sclerosis. Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1989;52:459-66.
  • 53. Brex PA, Ciccarelli O, O’Riordan JI, Sailer M, Thompson AJ, Miller DH. A longitudinal study of abnormalities on MRI and disability from multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2002;348:158-64.
  • 54. Leist TP, Gobbini MI, Frank JA, McFarland HF. Enhancing magnetic resonance imaging lesions and cerebral atrophy in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 2000;57:57-60.
  • 55. van Walderveen MA, Kamphorst W, Scheltens P, et al. Histopathologic correlate of hypoin- tense lesions on T1-wighted spin-echo magnetic resonance images in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1998;50:1282-8.
  • 56. Bermel RA, Bakshi R. The measurement and clinical relevance of brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5:158-70.
  • 57. Kappos L et al. Predictive value of NEDA for disease outcomes over 6 years in patients with RRMS. Presented at: 31st ECTRIMS Annual Congress; 7-10 Oct 2015; Barcelona; Abstract 570.
  • 58. Cree BAC et al. Long-term effects of fingolimod on NEDA by year of treatment. Poster presented at: 31st ECTRIMS Annual Congress; 7-10 Oct 2015; Barcelona. Poster Session 1; P627.
  • 59. Filippi M, Rocca MA. MR imaging of gray matter involvement in multiple sclerosis: implications for understanding disease pathophysiology and monitoring treatment efficacy. Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:1171-7.
  • 60. Moll NM, Rietsch AM, Thomas S, et al. Multiple sclerosis normal-appearing white matter: pathology-imaging correlations. Ann Neurol. 2011;70(5):764-73.
  • 61. Fox RJ, Sakaie K, Lee JC, et al. A validation study of multicenter diffusion tensor imaging: reliability of fractional anisotropy and diffusivity values. ANJR. 2012;33(4):695-700.
  • 62. Pitt D, Boster A, Pei W, et al. Imaging cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis with ultra-high- field magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Neurol. 2010;67(7):812-8.
  • 63. Burman J, Zetterberg H, Fransson M, Loskog AS, Raininko R, Fagius J. Assessing tissue damage in multiple sclerosis: a biomarker approach. Acta Neurol Scand. 2014;130:81-9.
  • 64. Kuhle J, Plattner K, Bestwick JP, et al. A comparative study of CSF neurofilament light and heavy chain protein in MS. Mult Scler. 2013;19:1597-603.
  • 65. Petzold A, Eikelenboom MJ, Gveric D, et al. Markers for different glial cell responses in multiple sclerosis: clinical and pathological correlations. Brain. 2002;125:1462-73.
  • 66. De Stefano N, Narayanan S, Francis GS, et al. Evidence of axonal damage in the early stages of multiple sclerosis and its relevance to disability. Arch Neurol. 2001;5:65-70.
  • 67. Sobel RA. The pathology of multiple sclerosis. In: Multiple sclerosis. Antel J, editor. Neurologic clinics. Philadelphia: Sanders; 1995; 13(1):1-22.
  • 68. Belbasis L, Bellou V, Evangelou E, Ioannidis JP, Tzoulaki I. Environmental risk factors and multiple sclerosis: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Lancet Neurol. 2015;14(3):263-73.
  • 69. Wingerchuk DM. Smoking: effects on multiple sclerosis susceptibility and disease progression. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2012;5:13-22.
  • 70. Hedstrom AK, Hiller J, Olsson T, Alfredsson L. Smoking and multiple sclerosis susceptibility. Eur J Epidemiol. 2013;28(11):867-74.
  • 71. Ascherio A, Munger KL. Environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis. Part I: the role of infection. Ann Neurol. 2007;61:288-99.
  • 72. Thacker EL, Mirzaei F, Ascherio A. Infectious mononucleosis and risk for multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. Ann Neurol. 2006;49(3):499-503.
  • 73. Wu C, Yosef N, Thalhamer T, et al. Induction of pathogenic T17 cells by inducible saltsensing kinase SGK1. Nature. 2013;496:513-51.
  • 74. Kleinewietfeld M, Manzel A, Titze J, et al. Sodium chloride drives autoimmune disease by the induction of pathogenic T17 cells. Nature. 2013;496:518-22.
  • 75. Ascherio A, Munger KL, White R, et al. Vitamin D as an early predictor of multiple sclerosis activity and progression. JAMA Neurol. 2014;71(3):306-14.
  • 76. Sotirchos ES, Bhargava P, Eckstein C, et al. Safety and immunologic effects of high- vs low- dose cholecalciferol in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2016;86(4):382-90.
  • 77. Hedstrom AK, Olsson T, Alfredsson L. High body mass index before age 20 is associated with increased risk for multiple sclerosis in both men and women. Mult Scler J. 2012;18(9):1334-6.
  • 78. Hedstrom AK, Bomfirm IL, Barcellos L, Gianfrancesco M, Schaefer C, Kockum I, Olsson T, Alfredsson L. Interaction between adolescent obesity and HLA risk genes in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2014;82(10):867-72.
  • 79. Simpson Jr S, Blizzard L, Otahal P, Van der Mei I, Taylor B. Latitude is significantly associated with the prevalence of multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011;82:1132-41.
  • 80. Strachan DP. Family size, infection and atopy: the first decade of the “hygiene hypothesis”. Thorax. 2000;55(Suppl 1):S2-10.
  • 81. Correale J. Helminth/parasite treatment of multiple sclerosis. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2014;16:296.
  • 82. Correale J, Farez MF. The impact of parasite infections on the course of multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;233(1-2):6-11.
  • 83. Fleming JO. Helminth therapy and multiple sclerosis. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43(3-4):259-74.
  • 84. Mielcarz DW, Kasper LH. The gut microbiome in multiple sclerosis. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2015;17:18.
  • 85. Oppenheimer DR. Demyelinating diseases. In: Blackwood W, Corsellis JAN, editors. Greenfield’s neuropathology. 3rd ed. London: Edward Arnold; 1976. p. 470-99.
  • 86. Lumsden CE. The neuropathology of multiple sclerosis. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW, editors. Handbook of clinical neurology. New York: Elsevier; 1969. p. 217-309.
  • 87. Adams RD, Kubick CS. The morbid anatomy of the demyelinative disease. Am J Med. 1952;12:510-46.
  • 88. Zimmerman HM, Netsky HG. The pathology of multiple sclerosis. Res Publ Res Nerv Ment Dis. 1950;28:271-312.
  • 89. Lampert PW. Fine structure of the demyelinating process. In: Hallpike JF, Adams CWM, Tourtelotte WW, editors. Multiple sclerosis: pathology, diagnosis and management. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1983. p. 29-46.
  • 90. Trapp BD, Peterson J, Ransahoff RM, Rudick R, Moerk S, Boe L. Axonal transaction in the lesions of multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:278-85.
  • 91. Lassmann H, Vass K. Are current immunological concepts of multiple sclerosis reflected by the Immunopathology of its lesions? Springer Semin Immunopathol. 1995;17:77-87.
  • 92. Lassman H, Raine CS, Antel J, Prineas JW. Immunopathology of multiple sclerosis: report on an international meeting held at the Institute of Neurology of the University of Vienna. J Neuroimmunol. 1998;86:213-7.
  • 93. Lucchinetti C, Brueck W, Paris J, et al. Heterogeneity of multiple sclerosis lesions: implications for the pathogenesis of demyelination. Ann Neurol. 2000;47:707-17.
  • 94. Cannella B, Raine CS. The adhesion molecule and cytokine profile of multiple sclerosis lesions. Ann Neurol. 1995;37:424-35.
  • 95. Poser C. The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: a commentary. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2000;102:191-204.
  • 96. Khan N, Smith MT. Multiple sclerosis-induced neuropathic pain: pharmacological management and pathophysiological insights from rodent EAE models. Inflammopharmacology. 2014;22(1):1-22.
  • 97. Pender MP, Sears TA. Involvement of the dorsal root ganglion in acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat: a histological and electrophysiological study. J Neurol Sci. 1986;72(2-3):231-42.
  • 98. Sadovnick AD, Armstrong H, Rice GF, et al. A population based study of multiple sclerosis in twins: an update. Ann Neurol. 1993;33:281-5.
  • 99. Sadovnick AD, Baird PA, Ward RH. Multiple sclerosis: update risks for relatives. Am J Med Genet. 1988;29:533-41.
  • 100. Didonna A, Oksenberg JR. Genetic determinants of risk and progression in multiple sclerosis. Clin Chim Acta. 2015;449:16-22.
  • 101. De Jager P et al. ACTRIMS-ECTRIMS. Boston, MA; 2014.
  • 102. Sawcer S, Ban M, Maranian M, et al. A high-density screen for linkage in multiple sclerosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2005;77:454-67.
  • 103. Kaushansky N, Altmann DM, David CS, Lassmann H, Ben-Nun A. DQB1*0602 rather than DRB1*1501 confers susceptibility to multiple sclerosis-like disease induced by proteolipid protein (PLP). J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:29.
  • 104. International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium. Analysis of immune-related loci identifies 48 new susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2010;133:2603-11.
  • 105. Gregory SG, Schmidt S, Seth P, et al. Interleukin 7 receptor alpha chain shows allelic and functional association with multiple sclerosis. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1083-11.
  • 106. Gregory AP, Dendrou CA, Attfield KE, et al. TNF receptor 1 genetic risks mirrors outcome of ant-TNF therapy in multiple sclerosis. Nature. 2012;488:508-11.
  • 107. Couturier N, Bucciarelli F, Nurtdinov RN, et al. Tyrosine kinase 2 variant influences T lymphocyte polarization and multiple sclerosis susceptibility. Brain. 2011;134:693-703.
  • 108. Stumer KH, Borgmeyer U, Schulze C, Pless O, Martin R. A multiple sclerosis-associated variant of CBLB links genetic risk with type I IFN function. J Immunol. 2014;193:4439-47.
  • 109. Jersild C, Fog T, Hansen GS, Thomsen M, Svejgaard A, Dupont B. Histocompatibility determinants in multiple sclerosis with special reference to clinical course. Lancet. 1973;2:1221-5.
  • 110. Healy BC, Liguori M, Tran D, et al. HLA B*44: protective effects in MS susceptibility and MRI outcome measures. Neurology. 2010;75:634-40.
  • 111. Qju W, Raven S, James I, et al. Spinal cord involvement in multiple sclerosis: a correlative MRI and high-resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping study. J Neurol Sci. 2011;300:114-9.
  • 112. Okuda DT, Srinivasan R, Oksenberg JR, et al. Genotype-phenotype correlations in multiple sclerosis: HLA genes influence disease severity inferred by 1HMR spectroscopy and MRI measures. Brain. 2009;132:250-9.
  • 113. Masterman T, Ligers A, Olsson T, Andersson M, Olerup O, Hillert J. HLA-DR15 is associated with lower age at onset in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2000;48:211-9.
  • 114. Smestad C, Brynedal B, Jonasdottir G, et al. The impact of HLA-A and -DRB1 on age at onset, disease course and severity in Scandinavian multiple sclerosis patients. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:835-40.
  • 115. Esposito F, Sorosina M, Ottoboni L, et al. A pharmacogenetics study implicates SLC9A9 in multiple sclerosis disease activity. Ann Neurol. 2015;78:115-27.
  • 116. Dhib-Jalbut S, Valenzuela RM, Ito K, Kaufman M, Picone AM, Buyske S. HLA DR and DQ alleles and haplotypes associated with clinical response to glatiramer acetate in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2013;2(4):340-8.
  • 117. Levin LI, Munger KL, Ruberstone MV, et al. Multiple sclerosis and Epstein-Barr virus. JAMA. 2003;289:1533-6.
  • 118. DeLorenzo GN, Munger KL, Lennette ET, Orentreich N, Vogelman JH, Ascherio A. Epstein- Barr virus and multiple sclerosis: evidence of association from a prospective study with longterm follow-up. Arch Neurol. 2006;63(6):839-44.
  • 119. Woods DD, Bilbao JM, O’Connor P, Moscarello MA. A highly deaminized form of myelin basic protein in Marburg’s disease. Ann Neurol. 1996;40:18-24.
  • 120. Schwartz S, Mohr A, Knauth M, Wildemann B, Storch-Hagenlocher B. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. A follow-up study of 40 adult patients. Neurology. 2001;56:1312-8.
  • 121. Hartung HP, Grossman RI. ADEM. Distinct disease or part of the MS spectrum? Neurology. 2001;56:1257-60.
  • 122. Murthy JM, Yangala R, Meena AK, Jaganmohan-Reddy J. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: clinical and MRI study from South India. J Neurol Sci. 1999;165:133-6.
  • 123. Patterson PY. Transfer of allergic encephalomyelitis in rats by means of lymph node cells. J Exp Med. 1960;111:119-36.
  • 124. Bornstein MB, Appel SH. Application of tissue culture to the study of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. 1. Patterns of demyelination. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1961;20:141-57.
  • 125. Bornstein MB, Raine CS. Multiple sclerosis and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: specific demyelination of CNS in culture. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1977;3:359-67.
  • 126. Ben-Nun A, Cohen IR. Genetic control of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis at the level of cytotoxic lymphocytes in guinea pigs. Eur J Immunol. 1982;12:709-13.
  • 127. Owens T, Sriram S. The immunology of multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Neurol Clin. 1995;13(1):57-73.
  • 128. Massacesi L, Genain CP, Lee-Parritz D, Letvin NL, Confield D, Hauser SL, et al. Active and passively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in common marmosets: as new model for multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 1995;37:519-30.
  • 129. Uccelli A, Giunti D, Capello E, Roccatagliata L, Mancardi GL. EAE in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus. Int MS J. 2003;10:6-12.
  • 130. Bronstein JM, Lallone RL, Seitz RS, Ellison GW, Myers LW. A humoral response to oligodendrocyte-specific protein in MS. A potential molecular mimic. Neurology. 1999;53:154-61.
  • 131. Berger T, Rubner P, Schautzer F, Egg R, Ulmer H, Mayringer I, Dilitz E, Deisenhammer F, Reindl M. Antimyelin antibodies as a predictor of clinically definite multiple sclerosis after a first demyelinating event. N Engl J Med. 2004;349:139-45.
  • 132. Yu T, Ellison GW, Mendoza F, Bronstein JM. T-cell responses to oligodendrocyte-specific protein in multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci Res. 2001;66:506-9.
  • 133. Adorini L, Singaglia F. Pathogenesis and immunotherapy of autoimmune disease. Immunol Today. 1997;18:209-11.
  • 134. Ozenci V, Kouwenhoven M, Huang YM, Xiao BG, Kivisakk P, Fredrikson S, Link H. Multiple sclerosis: levels of interleukin-10-secreting blood mononuclear cells are low in untreated patients but augmented during interferon-p-1b treatment. Scand J Immunol. 1999;49:554-61.
  • 135. Cao Y, Goods BA, Raddassi K, Nepom GT, Kwok WW, Love JC, Hafler DA. Functional inflammatory profiles distinguished myelin-reactive T cells from patients with multiple sclerosis. Sci Transl Med. 2015;7(287):1-10.
  • 136. Axtell RC, de Jong BA, Boniface K, van der Voort LF, Bhat R, De Sarno P, Naves R, Han M, Zhong F, Castellanos JG, Mair R, Christakos A, Kolkowitz I, Katz L, Killestein J, Polman CH, de Waal MR, Steinman L, Raman C. T helper type 1 and 17 cells determine efficacy of interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis and experimental encephalomyelitis. Nat Med. 2010;16(4):406-12.
  • 137. Wekerle H. Immune pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Brain autoimmune reactivity and its control by neuronal function. Mult Scler. 1998;4:136-7.
  • 138. Yang Y, Tomura M, Ono S, Hamaoka T, Fujiwara H. Requirement for IFN-y in IL-12 production induced by collaboration between Va14+NKT cells and antigen-presenting cells. Int Immunol. 2000;12:1669-75.
  • 139. Liu C-C, Young LHY, Young JD-E. Lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis and disease. N Engl J Med. 2004;335:1651-9.
  • 140. Minagar A, Alexander JS. Blood-brain barrier disruption in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2003;9:540-9.
  • 141. Yednock TA, Cannon C, Fritz LC, Sanchez-Madrid F, Steinman L, Karin N. Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies against alpha 4 beta 1 integrin. Nature. 1992;356:63-6.
  • 142. Carlos TM, Harlan JM. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion molecules. Blood. 1994;84:2068-101.
  • 143. Frenette PS, Wagner DD. Adhesion molecules--Part 1. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:1526-9.
  • 144. Frenette PS, Wagner DD. Adhesion molecules--Part II: blood vessels and blood cells. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:43-5.
  • 145. von Andrian UH, MacKay CR. T-cell function and migration. Two sides of the same coin. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:1020-34.
  • 146. von Adrian UH, Engelhardt B. a4 integrins as therapeutic targets in autoimmune disease. N Engl J Med. 2004;348:68-72.
  • 147. Miossec P, Korn T, Kuchroo VK. Interleukin-17 and type 17 helper T cells. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(9):888-98.
  • 148. Bettelli E, Carrier Y, Gao W, Korn T, Strom TB, Oukka M, Weiner HL, Kuchroo VK. Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector Th17 and regulatory T cells. Nature. 2006;441:235-8.
  • 149. Matusevicius D, Kivisakk P, He B, Kostulas N, Ozenci V, Fredikson S, Link H. Interleukin-17 mRNA expression in blood and CSF mononuclear cells is augmented in multiple sclerosis. Mul Scler J. 1999;5(2):101-4.
  • 150. Tzartos JS, Friese MA, Craner MJ, Palace J, Newcombe J, Esiri MM, Fugger L. Interleukin-17 production in central nervous system-infiltrating T cells and glial cells is associated with active disease in multiple sclerosis. Am J Pathol. 2008;172(1):146-55.
  • 151. Lock C, Hermans G, Pedotti R, Brendolan A, Schadt E, Garren H, Langer-Gould A, Strober S, Cannella B, Alalrd J, Klonowski P, Austin A, Lad N, Kaminski N, Galli SJ, Oksenberg JR, Raine CS, Heller R, Steinman L. Gene-microarray analysis of multiple sclerosis lesions yields new targets validated in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Nat Med. 2002;8:500-8.
  • 152. Kostic M, Dzopalic T, Zivanovic S, Zivkovic N, Cvetanovic A, Stojanovic I, Vojinovic S, Marjanovic G, Savic V, Colic M. IL-17 and glutamate excitotoxicity in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Scand J Immunol. 2014;79(3):181-6.
  • 153. Elain G, Jeanneau K, Rutkowska A, Mir AK, Dev KK. The selective anti-IL17A monoclonal antibody secukinumab (AIN457) attenuates IL17A-induced levels of IL6 in human astrocytes. Glia. 2014;62(5):725-35.
  • 154. Vestweber D, Blanks JE. Mechanisms that regulate the function of the selectins and their ligands. Physiol Rev. 1999;79:181-213.
  • 155. Takada Y, Elices MJ, Crouse C, Hemler ME. The primary structure of the alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4: homology to other integrins and a possible cell-cell adhesion function. EMBO J. 1989;8:1361-8.
  • 156. Hynes RO. Integrins: a family of cell surface receptors. Cell. 1987;48(4):549-54.
  • 157. Hynes RO. Integrins: versatility, modulation, and signaling in cell adhesion. Cell. 1992;69:11-25.
  • 158. Stuve O, Marra CM, Jerome KR, Cook L, Cravens PD, Cepok S, Frohman EM, Phillips JT, Arendt G, Hemmer B, Monson NL, Racke MK. Immune surveillance in multiple sclerosis patients treated with natalizumab. Ann Neurol. 2006;59(5):745-7.
  • 159. Piccio L, Rossi B, Scarpini E, Laudanna C, et al. Molecular mechanisms involved in lymphocyte recruitment in inflamed brain microvessels: critical roles for P-selectin glycoprotein Ligand-1 and heterotrimeric Gi-Linked receptors. J Immunol. 2002;168:1940-849.
  • 160. Minagar A, Jy W, Jimenez JJ, Mauro LM, Horuman L, Sheremata WA, Ahn YS. Elevated plasma endothelial microparticles in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2001;56:1319-24.
  • 161. Qin S, Rottman JB, Myers P, et al. The chemokine receptors CSCR3 and CCR5 mark subsets of T cells associated with certain inflammatory reaction. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:746-54.
  • 162. Byun E, Caillier SJ, Montalban X, Villoslada P, Fernandez O, Brassat D, Comabella M, Wang J, Barcellos LF, Baranzini SE, Oksenberg JR. Genome-wide pharmacogenomics analysis of the response to interferon beta therapy in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 2008;65(3):337-44.
  • 163. Study of Tecelan (Imilecleucel-T) in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (Abili-T)., Jul 7, 2015. Accessed Feb 27, 2016 from ct2/show/NCT01684761.
  • 164. Murray TJ. Amantadine therapy for fatigue in MS. Can J Neurol Sci. 1994;21:9-14.
  • 165. Krupp LB, Coyle PK, Doscher C, et al. Fatigue therapy in MS: results of a double-blind, randomized, parallel trial of amantadine, pemoline, and placebo. Neurology. 1995;45:1956-61.
  • 166. Rammohan KW, Rosenberg JH, Lynn DJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of modafinil (Provigil) for the treatment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a two centre phase 2 study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;72:150-79.
  • 167. Traugott U. Detailed analysis of immunomodulatory properties of fluoxetine (Prozac) in chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL/J mice. Neurology. 1998;50:1998. (abstract)
  • 168. Goodman AD, Brown TR, Edwards KR, et al. A phase 3 trial of extended release oral dalfam- pridine in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2010;68(4):494-502.
  • 169. Goodman AD, Brown TR, Krupp LB, et al. Sustained-release oral fampridine in multiple sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2009;373(9665):732-8.
  • 170. Korenke AR, Rivey MP, Allington DR. Sustained-release fampridine for symptomatic treatment of multiple sclerosis. Ann Pharmacother. 2008;42(10):1458-65.
  • 171. Penn RD, Savoy SM, Corcos D, et al. Intrathecal baclofen for severe spinal spasticity. N Engl J Med. 1989;320:1517-21.
  • 172. Nance P, Sheremata WA, Lynch SG, et al. Relationship of the antispasticity effect of tizani- dine to plasma concentration in patients with multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 1997;54:731-06.
  • 173. Rossanese M, Novara G, Challacombe B, Iannetti A, Dasgupta P, Ficarra V. Critical analysis of phase II and III randomized control trials evaluating efficacy and tolerability of a p3- adrenoreceptor agonist for overactive bladder. BJU Int. 2015;115(1):32-40.
  • 174. Mehnert U, Birzele J, Reueter K, Schurch B. The effect of botulinum toxin type a on overactive bladder symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. J Urol. 2010;184(3):1011-116.
  • 175. Goessaert AS, Everaert KC. Onabotulinum toxin A for the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity due to spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis. Expert Rev Neurother. 2012;12(7):763-75.
  • 176. Browne C, Salmon N, Kehoe M. Bladder dysfunction and quality of life for people with multiple sclerosis. Disabil Rehabil. 2015;37:2350-8.
  • 177. Solaro C, Uccelli MM, Guglieri P, Uccelli A, Mancardi GL. Gabapentin is effective in treating nocturnal painful spasms in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2000;6(3):192-3.
  • 178. Rose AS, Kuzma JW, Kurtzke JF, et al. Cooperative study in the evaluation of therapy in multiple sclerosis: ACTH vs. placebo. Final Report. Neurology. 1970;20 Part 2:1-19.
  • 179. Beck BW, Cleary PA, Anderson MM, et al. A randomized controlled trial of corticosteroids in the treatment of acute optic neuritis. N Engl J Med. 1992;326:581-8.
  • 180. Diem R, Hobom M, Maier K, Weissert R, Storch MK, Meyer R, Bahr M. Methylprednisolone increases neuronal apoptosis during autoimmune CNS inflammation by inhibition of an endogenous neuroprotective pathway. J Neurosci. 2003;23(18):6993-7000.
  • 181. Diem R, Sattler MB, Merkler D, et al. Combined therapy with methylprednisolone and erythropoietin in a model of multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2005;129(Pt 2):375-85.
  • 182. Botticelli LJ, Wurtman RJ. Septo-hippocampal cholinergic neurons are regulated transynap- tically by endorphin and corticotrophin neuropeptides. J Neurosci. 1982;2:1316-21.
  • 183. Spruijt BM, Van Rijzingen I, Masswinkel H. The ACTH 4-9 analog Org2766 modulates the behavioral changes induced by NMDA and the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5. J Neurosci. 1994;14:3225-30.
  • 184. Hol EM, Mandys V, Sodnar P, Gispen WH, Bar PR. Protection by ACTH4-9 analogue against the toxic effects of cisplatin and taxol on sensory neurons and Glial cells in vitro. J Neurosci Res. 1994;39:178-85.
  • 185. O’Connor PW, Goodman A, Willmer-Hulme AJ, et al. Randomized. Multicenter trial of intravenous natalizumab in acute MS relapses: clinical and MRI effects. Neurology. 1994;62:2038-43.
  • 186. The IFNB Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. Interferon beta-1b is effective in relapsing- remitting multiple sclerosis. 1. Clinical results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology. 1993;43:655-61.
  • 187. Paty DW, Li KDB, the UBC MS/MRI Group and the IFN Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. Interferon beta-1b is effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1993;42:662-7.
  • 188. Jacobs LD, Cookfair DL, Rudick RA, et al. Intramuscular interferon beta-1a for disease progression in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 1996;39:285-94.
  • 189. Rudick RA, Goodkin DE, Jacobs LD, et al. Impact of interferon beta-1a on Neurologic disability in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1997;49:358-63.
  • 190. PRISMS (Prevention of Relapses and Disability by Interferon p-1a Subcutaneously in multiple sclerosis) Study Group. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study of interferon p-1a in relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. Lancet. 2002;352:1498-504.
  • 191. Panitch H, Goodin DS, Francis G, Chang P, Coyle PK, O’Connor P, Monaghan E, Li D, Weinshenker B. Randomized, comparative study of interferon B-1a treatment regimens in MS: the EVIDENCE Trial. Neurology. 2002;59:1496-506.
  • 192. The PRISMS Study Group and the University of British Columbia MS/MRI Analysis Group. PRISMS-4: longer term efficacy of interferon-beta-1a in relapsing MS. Neurology. 2001;56:1628-36.
  • 193. Cohen BA, Rivera VM. PRISMS: the story of a pivotal clinical trial series in multiple sclerosis. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010;26(4):827-38.
  • 194. Calabresi PA, Kieseier BC, Arnold DL, et al. Pegylated interferon p-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (ADVANCE): a randomized, phase 3, double-blind study. Lancet Neurol. 2014;13(7):657-65.
  • 195. Johnson KP, Brooks BR, Cohen JA, et al. Copolymer 1 reduces relapse rate and improves disability in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results of a phase III multicenter, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology. 1995;45:1268-76.
  • 196. Johnson KP, Brooks BR, Ford CC, et al. Sustained clinical benefits of Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) in multiple sclerosis patients observed for 6 years. Mult Scler. 2000;6:255-66.
  • 197. Khan O, Rieckmann P, Boyko A, Selmaj K, Zivadinov R, and for the GALA study group. Three times weekly glatiramer acetate in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2013;73(6):705-13.
  • 198. Stone LA, Frank JA, Albert PS, et al. Characterization of MRI response to treatment with interferon beta-1b: contrast-enhancing MRI lesion frequency as a primary outcome measure. Neurology. 1997;49:862-9.
  • 199. Mancardi GL, Sardanelli F, Parodi RC, et al. Effect of copolymer-1 on serial gadolinium- enhanced RMI in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1998;50:1127-33.
  • 200. Dalton CM, Miszkiel KA, Barker GJ, et al. The effect of natalizumab on conversion of T1 gadolinium enhancing lesions to T1 hypodense lesions. Neurology. 2004;60(Supp1):S484.
  • 201. Rudick RA, Fisher E, Lee J-C, Simon J, Jacobs L, and the Multiple Sclerosis Collaborative Research Group. Us of the brain parenchymal fraction to measure whole brain atrophy in relapsing-remitting MS. Neurology. 1999;53:1698-704.
  • 202. Ge Y, Grossman RI, Udupa JK, et al. Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) treatment in relapsing- remitting MS. Neurology. 2000;54:813-7.
  • 203. Frank JA, Richert N, Bash C, et al. Interferon-p-1b slows progression of atrophy in RRMS. Neurology. 2004;62:719-25.
  • 204. Ransohoff RM. Natalizumab for multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(25):2622-9.
  • 205. Polman CH, O’Connor PW, Hardova E, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of natal- izumab for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(9):899-910.
  • 206. Miller DH, Soon D, Fernando KT, et al. MRI outcomes in a placebo-controlled trial of natali- zumab in relapsing MS. Neurology. 2007;68(17):1390-401.
  • 207. Rudick RA, Stuart WH, Calabresi PA, et al. Natalizumab plus interferon beta-1a for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(9):911-23.
  • 208. McGuigan C, Craner M, Guadagno J, et al. Stratification and monitoring of natalizumab- associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk: recommendations from an expert group. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2016;87(2):117-25.
  • 209. Schwab N, Schneider-Hohendorf T, Pignolet B, et al. PML risk stratification using anti-JCV antibody index and L-selectin. Mult Scler. 2016;22:1048-60. doi:10.1177/135245851607651.
  • 210. Calabresi PA, Giovannoni G, Confavreux C, et al. The incidence and significance of anti- natalizumab antibodies: results from AFFIRM and SENTINEL. Neurology. 2007;69(14):1391-403.
  • 211. Kappos L, Radue EW, Comi G, et al. Switching from natalizumab to fingolimod: a randomized, placebo-controlled study in RRMS. Neurology. 2015;85(1):29-39.
  • 212. Pelletier D, Hafler DA. Fingolimod for multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(4):339-47.
  • 213. Kappos L, Radue EW, O’Connor P, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of oral fingolimod in relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(5):387-401.
  • 214. Cohen JA, Barkhof F, Comi G, et al. Oral fingolimod or intramuscular interferon for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(5):402-15.
  • 215. O’Connor P, Wolinsky JS, Confavreux C, et al. Randomized trial of oral teriflunomide for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(14):1293-303.
  • 216. Miller AE, O’Connor P, Wolinsky JS, et al. Pre-specified subgroup analyses of a placebo- controlled phase III trial (TEMSO) of oral teriflunomide in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2012;18(11):1625-32.
  • 217. O’Connor P, Wolinsky J, Confavreux C, Comi G, Kappos L, Olsson T, et al. Extension of a phase III trial (TEMSO) of oral teriflunomide in multiple sclerosis with relapses: clinical and MRI data 5 years after initial randomisation. Mult Scler. 2011;17(Supp 17):S414. P924
  • 218. Miller A, Kappos L, Comi G, et al. Teriflunomide efficacy and safety in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis: results from TOWER, a second, pivotal, phase 3 placebo-controlled study (S01.004). Neurology. 2013;80(meeting abstracts 1):S01.004.
  • 219. Confavreux C, O’Connor P, Comi G, et al. Oral teriflunomide for patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (TOWER): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Neurol. 2014;13(3):247-56.
  • 220. Vermersch P, Czlonkowska A, Grimaldi LM, et al. Teriflunomide versus subcutaneous interferon beta-1a in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis: a randomized, controlled phase 3 trial. Mult Scler. 2014;20(6):705-16.
  • 221. Genzyme Corporation. Aubagio prescribing information. Cambridge, MA; 2012.
  • 222. Jung Henson L, Stuve O, Kieseier B, Benamor M, Benzerdjeb H. Pregnancy outcomes from the teriflunomide clinical development program: retrospective analysis of the teriflunomide clinical trial database. Neurology. 2013;80:1001-11.
  • 223. Gold R, Linker RA, Stangel M. Fumaric acid and its esters: an emerging treatment for multiple sclerosis with antioxidative mechanism of action. Clin Immunol. 2012;142(1):44-8.
  • 224. Gold R, Kappos L, Arnold DL, et al. Placebo-controlled phase 3 study of oral BG-12 for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(12):1098Y1107.
  • 225. Fox RJ, Miller DH, Phillips JT, et al. Placebo-controlled phase 3 study of oral BG-12 or glatiramer in multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(12):1087Y1097.
  • 226. Spencer CM, Crabtree-Hartman EC, Lehmann-Horn K, Cree BAC, Zamvil SS. Reduction of CD8+ T lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis patients treated with dimethyl fumarate. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2015;2(3):e76.
  • 227. Dionne CA, Ganguly R, Camac A, Chaves C. Do oral disease modifying agents improve adherence to MS treatment? A comparison or oral and injectable drugs. CMSC 2015 Indianapolis; Abstract DX19.
  • 228. Munsell M, Locklear JC, Phillips AL, Frean M, Menzin J. An assessment of adherence among MS patients newly initiating treatment with a self-injectable versus oral diseasemodifying drug. CMSC 2015 Indianapolis; Abstract DX43.
  • 229. Ko JJ, Nazareth TA, Friedman H, Navaratnam P, Herriott DA, Sasane R. Treatment discontinuation after initiation of oral disease-modifying therapies in patients with MS. CMSC 2015 Indianapolis; Abstract DX44.
  • 230. Cohen JA, Coles AJ, Arnold DL, et al. Alemtuzumab versus interferon beta 1a as first-line treatment for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012;380(9856):1819-28.
  • 231. Coles AJ, Twyman CL, Arnold DL, et al. Alemtuzumab for patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis after disease-modifying therapy: a randomized controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012;380(9856):1829-39.
  • 232. Lemtrada® package insert:
  • 233. Hartung HP, Gonsette R, Koenig N, et al. Mitoxantrone in progressive multiple sclerosis: a placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized, multicentre trial. Lancet. 2002;360:2018-25.
  • 234. Ghalie RG, Edan G, Laurent M, et al. Cardiac adverse effects associated with mitoxantrone (Novantrone) therapy in patients with MS. Neurology. 2002;59:909-13.
  • 235. European Study Group on Interferon p-1b in Secondary Progressive MS. Placebo-controlled multicentre randomised trial of interferon p-1b in treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Lancet. 1998;352:1491-7.
  • 236. Sedel F, Papeix C, Bellanger A, et al. High doses of biotin in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2015;4:159-69.
  • 237. Tourbah A, Frenay CL, Edan G, et al. Effect of MD10003 [high doses of biotin] in progressive multiple sclerosis: results of a pivotal phase III randomized double blind placebo controlled study. Neurology. 2015;84(14):Supplement PL2.002.
  • 238. Hauser SL et al. B-cell depletion in rituximab in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(7):676-88.
  • 239. Hawker K, O’Connor P, Freedman MS, et al. Rituximab in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis: results of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Ann Neurol. 2009;66(4):460-71.
  • 240. Hauser S. Phase III results in relapsing MS (OPERA I and OPERA II studies). ECTRIMS 2015; Barcelona; Abstract #190.
  • 241. Montalban X. Phase II results of the ORATORIO study. ECTRIMS 2015; Barcelona; Abstract #228.
  • 242. Kappos L et al. Ocrelizumab in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Lancet. 2011;378(9805):1779-87.
  • 243. Hauser SL, Bar-Or A, Comi G et al. Ocrelizumab versus interferon beta-1a in relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 2016; doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1601277.
  • 244. Montalban X, Hauser SL, Kappos L et al. Ocrelizumab versus placebo in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 2016; doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1606468.
  • 245. Kappos L, Wiendl H, Selmaj K, Arnold DL, Havrdova E, Boyko A, Kaufman M, Rose J, Greenberg S, Sweetser M, Riester K, O’Neill G, Elkins J. Daclizumab HYP versus interferon beta-1a in relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(15):1418-28.
  • 246. An immunogenicity and pharmacokinetics study of BIIB019 (daclizumab high yield process) prefilled syringe in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (OBSERVE). www.clinicaltrials. gov, last updated Dec 23, 2015. Accessed 27 Feb 2016.
  • 247. Cadavid D, Hupperts R, Dulovic et al. Correlation of brain volume and physical measures with cognitive function using baseline data from the anti-LINGO-1 SYNERGY trial in multiple sclerosis. ECTRIMS 2015 Barcelona; Abstract P629.
  • 248. Tran JQ, Rana J, Barkhof F, et al. Randomized phase I trials of the safety/tolerability of antiLINGO-1 monoclonal antibody BIIB033. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2014;1(2):e18.
  • 249. Wang T, Xiong JQ, Ren XB, Sun W. The role of Nogo-A in neuroregeneration: a review. Brain Res Bull. 2012;87:499-503.
  • 250. Hvardova E. Positive proof of concept of AIN457, an antibody against interleukin-17A, in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, in ECTRIMS. Lyons; 2012.
  • 251. Miller DH et al. Firategrast for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2012;11:131-9.
  • 252. Stuve O, Hartung HP, Freedman M, Li D, Hemmer B, Kappos L, Rieckmann P, Montalban X, Ziemssen T, Selmaj K. Phase 2 BOLD extension study efficacy results for siponimod (BAF312) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Mul Scler Relat Disord. 2014;3(6):754-5.
  • 253. Komiya T et al. Efficacy and immunomodulatory actions of ONO-4641, a novel selective agonist for sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors 1 and 5, in preclinical models of multiple sclerosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013;171:54-62.
  • 254. Aisen ML. Justifying neurorehabilitation. (Editorial). Neurology. 1999;52:8.
  • 255. Thompson A. Symptomatic management and rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;71(Suppl 11):112-1127.
  • 256. Heine M, van de Port I, Rietberg MB, van Wegen EE, Kwakkel G. Exercise therapy for fatigue in multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;9:CD009956.
  • 257. Latimer-Cheung AE, Pilutti LA, Hicks AL, et al. The effects of exercise training on fitness, mobility, fatigue, and health related quality of life among adults with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review to inform guideline development. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;94:1800-28.
  • 258. Motl RW, Pilutti LA. The benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis. Nat Rev Neurol. 2012;8:487-97.
Found a mistake? Please highlight the word and press Shift + Enter  
< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >
Business & Finance
Computer Science
Language & Literature
Political science