Menu
Home
Log in / Register
 
Home arrow Environment arrow Inflammatory Disorders of the Nervous System: Pathogenesis, Immunology, and Clinical Management
Source

Epidemiology

Mild forms of cognitive impairment happen in about 40% of HIV patients, while the prevalence of HIV-related dementia in advanced stages is 7-27%. The incidence increases by threefold with CD4+ lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm3 and by sevenfold if less than 100 cells/mm3. Coinfection with hepatitis C and coexistence of diabetes mellitus are also other contributing factors in the development of cognitive problems. The introduction of HAART decreased the incidence of dementia in both adults and children.

Neuropathies in HIV patients are on the rise and affect as much as 50% of patients receiving HAART. Risk factors for peripheral neuropathy include male sex, older age, alcohol abuse, and exposure to dideoxynucleosides and protease inhibitors. Sympathetic sensory neuropathy is common with didanosine and stavudine.

Prevention

The incidence of HIV has dropped due to availability of HAART and more widespread use of preventive methods. Public knowledge about AIDS and its devastating consequences has increased, which in turn, may explain lower number of new cases. Primary prevention places emphasis of prevention of occurrence of the infection. Nowadays, society is more aware of the various mechanisms of transmission and modes of prevention such as condom use, substitution of formula for breastfeeding, and avoiding needle sharing in drug abusers. The medical world has witnessed a significant drop in incidence rate since the 1980s due to this approach; however, there still exist areas of concern such as rate of new cases in the minority communities. Early detection and treatment constitute the main target for the secondary prevention. Early treatment maintains patients in the latent period longer and delays symptomatic progression of the disease. Tertiary prevention focuses on limiting disability and rehabilitation. Prophylactic therapy for opportunistic infections is a form of primary prevention but can be successful in secondary and tertiary levels.

 
Source
Found a mistake? Please highlight the word and press Shift + Enter  
< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >
 
Subjects
Accounting
Business & Finance
Communication
Computer Science
Economics
Education
Engineering
Environment
Geography
Health
History
Language & Literature
Law
Management
Marketing
Mathematics
Political science
Philosophy
Psychology
Religion
Sociology
Travel