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Home arrow Environment arrow Inflammatory Disorders of the Nervous System: Pathogenesis, Immunology, and Clinical Management
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In the peripheral circulation, MP are derived chiefly from platelets (PMP), red cells (RMP), endothelial cells (EMP), and leukocytes (LMP). Each can occur in multiple phenotypes, identified in flow cytometry by lineage-specific fluorescent monoclonal antibodies (mAb). They range in size from about 0.2-1.5 um diameter and carry protein markers of the parent cell. Proteomic studies and other evidence indicate that they derive from detergent-resistant regions of the cell membrane, known as lipid rafts.

Although “MP” is convenient and widely used, alternatives such as extracellular vesicles (ECV) or microvesicles (MV) are gaining currency, having the advantage of excluding nonbiological particles in literature searches. We use “MP” in this review because of long tradition in the field of blood coagulation and continuing use in neuroinflammation. The term, exosomes, came into use ca. 2000 [2, 3] to denote a class of very small (50-120 nm) MP, said to derive from endosomes rather than the plasma membrane. Until very recently, it was unclear if they were qualitatively distinct from MP. This question is important to this review because many recent advances in neuroinflammation concern exosomes, as reviewed [4].

 
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