Menu
Home
Log in / Register
 
Home arrow Environment arrow Inflammatory Disorders of the Nervous System: Pathogenesis, Immunology, and Clinical Management
Source

Cytokines

It is usually assumed that cytokines/chemokines are released as soluble agents. However, as we have pointed out in earlier reviews, at least some are known to be MP associated and many others probably are, because cell-free plasma and serum contain MP unless centrifuged at 100,000 xg. More recent direct evidence supporting this vie is the report by Konadu et al. of at least 21 cytokines found associated with MP/exosomes in plasma of HIV-positive subjects [53]. Mullen et al. have shown that several important inflammatory mediators, including IL-1beta and HMGB1, are actually released on exosomes via a novel pathway [54]. Indeed, MP-associated secretion of IL-1beta was shown in 2001 [55].

Matrix Metaloproteinases (MMPs)

The importance of MMPs in neuroinflammation is widely appreciated in many specific conditions, such as ischemic stroke [56]. Most frequently implicated are MMP-2 and MMP-9 [57, 58]. They are released from many cell types, including from astrocytes [59] and from stem cells [60] and are transported on MP.

For example, McColl et al. studied the effect of prior inflammatory state (induced by IL-1beta) on postischemic brain injury in mice and observed that neutrophil- derived MMP-9 was a major culprit in the exacerbation of injury by the inflammatory state, since inhibition of MMP-9 ameliorated the damage [61]. Of note, MMPs are often released together with their inhibitors [59], suggesting a delicate balance. The above-cited references and related others [62-65] suggest that many or most of the MMPs are released bound to MP of the “ecto-MP” type. A recent clinical study documented clear correlations between MMP-3, MMP-9, and disease status in MS patients [66].

 
Source
Found a mistake? Please highlight the word and press Shift + Enter  
< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >
 
Subjects
Accounting
Business & Finance
Communication
Computer Science
Economics
Education
Engineering
Environment
Geography
Health
History
Language & Literature
Law
Management
Marketing
Mathematics
Political science
Philosophy
Psychology
Religion
Sociology
Travel