It is seen in this review that MP/exosomes are now regarded as fundamental in neuroinflammatory conditions. Because of the unexpectedly large literature on these matters, and length restrictions, many fine papers could not be cited, and discussion of several additional specific disorders had to be dropped.
Among topics not covered are the intracellular vesicles known as clathrin-coated pits, which may be released from the plasma membrane in exosomes to transmit prion infection [Eur. J. Cell Biol., 2009, 88(1): 45-63]. Intracellular trafficking via MP is a related field with important new developments, such as intracellular transport across the nuclear membrane and to the plasma membrane. As stated in a recent issue of Cell: “Vesicular nucleo-cytoplasma transport is becoming recognized as a general cellular mechanism for translocation of large cargos across the nuclear envelope” [C. Hagen, K.C. Dent, et al., Dec. 17, 2015; Cell, v163, p1692-1701]. These particles are the likely source of exosomal genetic transcripts.
It is clear that better understanding of detailed mechanisms of MP formation, cargo sorting, release, clearance, and targeting hold great promise for gaining new insights into many devastating neurological conditions. Those insights, some of which are seen in this review, hold the promise of effective new therapies.
Acknowledgment For their support, the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation