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Home arrow Environment arrow Inflammatory Disorders of the Nervous System: Pathogenesis, Immunology, and Clinical Management
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Summary

Autoimmune encephalitis has different immunologic mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and therapeutic outcomes. It can be divided into two categories: antibodies against intracellular antigens or antibodies against neuronal surface/synaptic antigens. More than half of patients with autoimmune encephalitis present with symptoms of limbic encephalopathy including memory deficits, altered mental status, seizures, and neuropsychiatric syndrome. Patients with the clinical presentation of encephalitis should have a complete workup including neuroimaging, EEG, lumbar puncture, and serologic testing. Other etiologies of encephalitis are more common and should be excluded. Patients often respond favorably to immunotherapy. Delay in diagnosis and treatment has been associated with a worse prognosis.

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