Borrelia burgdorferi Enolase and Plasminogen Binding
Catherine A. Brissette
Department of Microbiology, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA
Introduction to Lyme Disease
Bacteria of the Order Spirochaetales include human and animal pathogens that cause diseases including syphilis, leptospirosis, periodontal disease, relapsing fever, and Lyme disease. Spirochetes are unique among bacteria in their extraordinary ability to invade, disseminate, and persist in their hosts. The Lyme disease spirochete, B. burgdorferi, is the cause of more than 90% of all arthropod-borne diseases affecting humans in the United States (Bacon et al. 2008; Radolf et al. 2012). Roughly 30,000 cases are reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) each year, although the actual number is thought to be much greater (Campbell et al. 1998; CDC 2011). Indeed, new estimates released by the CDC in 2013 indicate that the actual number of Americans affected by Lyme disease each year is around 300,000 (CDC 2013a; Hinckley et al. 2014). The disease is endemic to the US, Europe, and parts of Asia. The prevalence of Lyme disease is likely to escalate as a result of the expanding habitat of vector ticks (Rand et al. 2007; Ogden et al. 2008, 2009, 2010); indeed, in North America, Lyme disease has established footholds north and west of the traditional hot zones of New England/Mid-Atlantic and Upper Midwest regions (Rand et al. 2007; Russart et al. 2014; Simon et al. 2014; Stone et al. 2015). Lyme disease can affect many tissues and organs, with symptoms that include skin rashes, arthritis, and meningitis. Sudden death due to Lyme carditis, although rare, can occur (CDC 2013b). Failure to treat this infection promptly can result in long-term debilitating effects on the patient's health (Steere 2001; Stanek and Strle 2003; Stanek et al. 2012). A preventative vaccine was approved for human use in 1998 but production was halted in early 2002, although a vaccine for dogs remains available.
Moonlighting Proteins: Novel Virulence Factors in Bacterial Infections, First Edition. Edited by Brian Henderson.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.