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ANALYZING SENTENCE FRAMES

John Young and Linda Garro (1994 [1981]) studied illness beliefs and illness behaviors in two communities in Mexico. In the 1970s, when Young and Garro did their work there, the people of Uricho had good access to Western medicine—good roads, nearby clinics with medical staff, etc.—and the people of Pichataro had little access. In fact, the people of Pichataro went to Western doctors half as much as did the people of Uricho. Young and Garro wanted to test whether this difference in behavior was reflected in a different set of beliefs about the causes and symptoms of illness.

FIGURE 16.18.

A shared model of the semantic structure of 15 emotions for Chinese, English, and Japanese. SOURCE:A. Kimball Romney etal., ''Cultural Universals: Measuring the Semantic Structure of Emotion Terms in English and Japanese.'' PNAS, Vol. 94, pp. 5489-94,1997. NationalAcademy of Sciences USA.

One of the methods they used for this test was frame substitution. Tables 16.7 and 16.8 show the illnesses and sentence frames in their research with 20 informants. Each informant was asked 396 (18 X 22) questions: Can dysentery come from anger? (illness 5, frame 1) Does dysentery come from walking about without shoes? (illness 5, frame 19) Can you get fever sores from eating lots of cold things? (illness 17, frame 12) . . . and so on.

Table 16.9 shows the format for the profile matrix that would result from each informant’s responses. Each illness could have from 0 to 22 properties (causes or symptoms) and there are 18(17)/2 = 153 pairs of the 18 illnesses. Each time an informant said that a pair of illnesses had the same cause or symptom, that pair of illnesses got a point. There were 20 informants, so each pair of illnesses could have from 0 to (20 X 22) = 440 points.

The MDS for the two 18 X 18 similarity matrices (one for Pichataro and one for Uricho) that result from all this is shown in figures 16.19a and 16.19b. The circles indicate the clusters found by cluster analysis of the same data. Recall that any MDS can be rotated 360 degrees in any plane with no loss of information. Bottom line: Young and Garro got the same results about illness beliefs in both villages, even though the people in one village had better access to Western medicine and took advantage of that access (Further Reading: sentence frames).

Table 16.7 Illness Terms Used in Term-Frame Interviews

1.

Enfermedad de corazOn

''Heart illness''

2.

Empacho

''Blocked digestion''

3.

COlico

''Colic''; sharp stomach pains

4.

Mollera caida

''Fallen fontanel''; displacement of a section of the top of the

skull

5.

Disenteria

''Dysentery''

6.

Calor subido

''Risen heat''

7.

Gripa

''Grippe''; cold, flu

8.

Desposiciones

''Diarrhea''

9.

Sofoca del estomago

''Bloated stomach''

10.

Latido

''Palpitations''; brought on by eating delay

11.

Broncomonia

''Bronchopneumonia''

12. Anginus

Swollen glands in the neck

13.

Bilis

''Bile''; illness resulting from a fright or other strong emotional experience

14.

Punzadas

Sharp headache around the temples

15.

Pulmonia

''Pneumonia''

16.

Mal de ojo

''Evil eye''; also eratikua or tzitiparata

17.

Fogazo

''Fever sores''

18.

Bronquitis

''Bronchitis''

SOURCE: J. C. Young and L. Y. Garro, ''Variation in the Choice of Treatment in Two Mexican C Communities,'' Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 16, pp. 1453-63, table 3,1982.

Table 16.8 Belief Frames Used in Term-Frame Interviews

1.

Can [X] come from anger? (^Puede venir [X] por un coraje?)

2.

Does [X] come from the ''heat''? (^Viene [X] por el calor?)

3.

Are there pains in the chest with [X]? (^Hay dolores en el pecho con [X]?)

4.

When you leave a warm place and enter into the cold air, can you get [X]? (^CUando sale de un lugar caliente y entra en el aire frio, se puede agarrar [X]?)

5.

Can you get [X] from eating lots of ''hot'' things? (^Se puede agarrar [X] por comer muchas cosas calientes?)

6.

Does [X] come from an ''air''? (^Viene [X] por un aire?)

7.

With [X] does the head hurt? (^Con [X] duele la cabeza?)

8.

Can you cure [X] with folk remedies? (^Puede curar [X] con remedios caseros?)

9.

Does [X] come from germs? (^Viene [X] por los microbios?)

10.

Does [X] come from not eating ''by the hours''? (^Viene [X] por no comer a las horas?)

11.

With [X] do you lose your appetite? (^Con [X] se quita la hambre?)

12.

Can you get [X] from eating lots of''cold'' things? (^Se puede agarrar [X] por comer muchas cosas frescas?)

13.

With [X] is there a temperature? (^Con [X] hay calentura?)

14.

When you get wet, can you get [X]? (^Cuando se moja uno, se puede agarrar [X]?)

15.

With [X] is there pain in the stomach? (^Con hay dolar en el estomago?)

16.

Does [X] come from the ''cold''? (^Viene [X] por el frio?)

17.

Does [X] come by contagion from other people? (^Viene [X] por contagio de otras personas?)

18.

Can [X] come from witchcraft? (^Puede venir [X] por la brujeria?)

19.

Does [X] come from walking about without shoes? (^Viene [X] por pisar sin zapatos?)

20.

When you have [X], do you have to take ''hot'' remedies to be cured? (^Cuando uno tiene [X] tiene que tomar cosas calientes para curarse?)

21.

Can you cure [X] with ''doctors''' remedies? (^Puede curar [X] con remedies medicos?)

22.

Can [X] come from a fright? (^Puede venir [X] por un susto?)

SOURCE: J. C. Young and L. Y. Garro, ''Variation in the Choice of Treatment in Two Mexican C Communities,'' Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 16, pp. 1453-63, table 4,1982.

Note: Spanish frames reflect local usage.

Table 16.9 Profile Matrix for One Informant's Responses to the 396 Questions in Young and Garro's Test of Illness Beliefs

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

 
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