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Handbook of Business Communication

Editors’ introductionAims of the volumeBusiness communication research: The American traditionBusiness communication research: The European traditionThe names of the discipline and the title of the bookStructure of the volumeReferencesThe history of the language of economics and businessIntroductionAntiquityThe Early Middle AgesThe High and Late Middle AgesThe “Commercial Revolution”Languages used in businessBusiness-related genresBusiness-related terminologyThe language of fiscal administrationThe RenaissanceForeign languages in business in modern timesFrom “Handlungswissenschaft” to BetriebswirtschaftlehreThe language of economics from the Mercantilist period to the presentConclusionReferencesII Genres and mediaGenres in the business context: An introductionIntroduction: State of the ArtFrom language to communicative practices and their orderingText - genre - communicative practiceProposals for classifying business communicationCommunicative practices in business: Linguistic perspectives and issuesIntegrated communication and corporate styleIntertextuality and dynamic communication networksStandardization and automatizationBusiness communication as professionCommunicative practices as interconnected genresCommunicative practices and competence: Job-based communication profilesConclusionReferencesBusiness presentationsIntroductionFundamentalsWhat is a presentation?Types of presentationGenresFormatsA complex praxisElements and phasesAnticipationOperationalisationPreparationThe event itselfDiscussionDocumentationReflexion and optimisationInformatization and multimodal media usageThe rise of software-based presentations and their criticsOrientationIs there a “PowerPoint Culture”?Alternative ways of presentingInteraction rhetoricLanguage useRhetorical effectsVisualisationTextTables and chartsIllustrationsPhotosVideosStructure & navigationTemporal and spatial dissociationRe-useAutonomisationConclusionReferencesBusiness negotiationsIntroductionSome terminological notesThe linguistic aspects of business negotiationSpeech actsPronoun choiceSpecialized lexisHedges and vague languageDirect reported speechTraining business negotiationConclusionReferencesBusiness meetingsIntroduction: Conceptualization and classification of meetingsLeadership, decision-making, and consensusConflict, power, and politenessGender issues in business meetingsEfficiency and structure vs. emergence and perceived chaosFurther research: Self-organization and ambiguity as resilient resources in meetingsConclusionReferencesSales talk and sales trainingIntroductionTypes of sales conversationsProcessSales-advisor and practical-rhetoric trainingRecommendations for training based on discourse analysisConclusionReferencesFrom business letters to email and mobile communicationIntroductionDefinitions and statisticsGenre analysisGeneral attributesThe genre of business lettersEmail - a genre in its own right?RemediationOrality vs. literacyDegree of formalityLinguistic accuracyPros and cons of using email in businessBenefits of emailDownsides of electronic communicationEmail in litigationEmail managementTechnological advances in business communicationConclusionReferencesCompany websitesIntroductionMixed dialogicityHypertext and hypermediaCommunicative usabilityArchitecture and linksLocation and orientationWeb addressesSemiotics, linguistic structures and pragmaticsWebsites as semiotic ensemblesThe home page: A special caseImages versus wordsText visualisationText compositionLanguage propertiesAlternatives to textTransversal topicsAdvertisingWeb design for mobile devicesProcessing for search enginesEvaluation, culture(s), ethicsConclusionReferencesThe annual reportIntroductionClarification of the conceptFunction and reception of annual reportsStructure and contents of annual reportsLayout and style of annual reportsHistorical development of annual reportsConclusionReferencesIntercultural business communication: A linguistic approachIntroductionNon-linguistic approaches and intercultural trainingPsychological and sociological approachesIntercultural training and the collection of critical incidentsIntercultural management and multi-disciplinary approachesLinguistic approaches to intercultural (business) communicationCulture and languageCombining linguistic aspects with cultural standardsCombining linguistic and financial aspectsContrastive approachesIntercultural pragmaticsAnthropological linguistics and critical approachesLinguistic recommendations: General knowledge about the functioning of communicationHeringer’s approachSpeaking and understandingNon-verbal, para-verbal and conversation-organisational levelsRelational levelKnowledge asymmetriesConversational maximsDegree of explicitness in comments: high-context and low-contextCulture in language: hotspotsCulture in language: hotwordsPromising verbal strategies for managing intercultural (business) communicationIntercultural competenceQuestion strategiesInserting interim summariesAvoiding adjectives and adverbs referring to relative sizesConclusionReferencesMultilingualism in business: Language needsIntroduction: Changing language needs in a globalised economyLanguage needs: Definitions and typology, learners’ vs. business perspectiveLanguage needs in business and in companiesLanguage needs analyses in business: MethodologiesLanguage needs and teaching and learning of Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP)ConclusionReferencesMultilingualism in business: Language policies and practicesIntroductionLanguage practices in businessThe specific perspective of language practices researchOverview of language practices researchLanguage choices in external communication - issues of adaptationLanguage choices in internal communication: Policies vs. “bricolage”Language policies in businessDefinition of concepts and empirical fieldsLevels of language policiesPower relations and language contactImplicit and explicit language policy in organisationsInsights from other selected disciplinesFrom applied linguistics to other disciplines: Towards interdisciplinary awarenessManagement and organisation studiesPolitical scienceEconomicsConclusionReferencesEnglish as a lingua franca in international business contexts: Pedagogical implications for the teaching of English for Specific Business PurposesIntroductionReconceptualising English in the age of (corporate) globalisationThe waves of globalisationThat thing called “English”Revisiting English for businessProfiling uses and users of Business EnglishCore communicative events and business genresBusiness English as community-based practiceTeaching English for Specific Business PurposesThe ESP movement and specificity of purposeESP in the glocalised linguistic marketplaceLearning English for specific purposesESP course designNeeds analysisModels of learningDescribing business language for teaching purposesESP practiceSyllabus designMaterials, methodology and contentsPolicy factors and institutionalisationConclusionReferencesTeaching and learning foreign business languagesIntroductionGeneral trends in foreign language teaching and learningRelevant disciplinesTrends in theories about L2 teaching and learningSpecific aspects of teaching and learning foreign business languagesSimilarities to, and differences from teaching and learning general languageBusiness language(s) and business communicationLanguages for General Business Purposes vs. Languages for Specific Business PurposesBusiness English vs. Business English as Lingua Franca vs. Business Languages Other than EnglishThe multiplicity of aims in teaching and learning (business) languagesBusiness knowledge vs. LSP competenceEvaluation and testing: a brief reviewConclusionReferencesNew media in teaching and learning business languagesIntroductionMain terms and issuesLanguages for specific (business) purposes, technology and globalisationFocus on the setting: Technology in four types of learning environmentsFocus on the "technology solution”: Examples of technology use in different settingsThe Internet as a source of authentic language inputPublished business courses with extra digital materialBlended learning courses in educational/tertiary settingsBlended learning in professional settingsSelf-study with language learning softwareStructured language-learning communitiesFocus on learner differencesConclusionReferencesIV Lexical phenomenaThe structure of economic and business termsIntroductionThe terminological profile of the language of economics and business in EnglishMethodological preliminariesParts of speechSimplexesThe degree of complexity of multi-word unitsAdjective + noun vs. noun + noun vs. noun + preposition + nounNeoclassical compoundingInterim summaryEnglish in comparison with German, Polish and SpanishMethodological preliminariesThe internal structure of complex nominalsThe degree of complexity of nominal compounds in English and GermanAdjective compoundsAnglicismsInterim summaryConclusionReferencesMetaphor, metonymy, and euphemism in the language of economics and businessIntroductionMetaphorTerminological preliminariesEconomists and management scholars on metaphorMetaphor in economicsMetaphor in organization studiesMetaphor in marketingMetaphor in accountingLinguistic approachesWhy do linguists study metaphor in economics and business?Classifications of conceptual metaphorsCross-linguistic commonalities and differencesCritical discourse analysisWord historiesPedagogical implicationsMetonymyTerminological preliminariesThe linguistic analysis of metonymies in business-media discourse and terminologyMetonymies in business-media discourseMetonymic term formation and semantic change in economics and businessThe analysis of metonymy within organization studiesEuphemismTerminological preliminariesThe form of euphemismsThe functions of euphemismsDysphemismsConclusionReferencesLanguage planning and linguistic purism in the business domainIntroductionTheories of language planningLanguage planningLanguage Management Theory (LMT)Reversing Language ShiftPlanning, policy, management?Terminology and language planningPurism and language planningCase studies in puristic language planningCatalan in SpainGeneral situation and status planning measuresCorpus planningQuebecGeneral situation and status planning measuresCorpus planningFranceStatus planning measuresCorpus planning measures: Terminology planningEvaluationConclusionReferencesThe language of marketingIntroductionMethods and materialsHistorical development of marketing terminologyThe history of marketing and marketing terminologyThe dynamics of marketing terms and terminology - a case study on FrenchThe most important trends in marketing languageWhat do marketers think about their language?Word-formation processes in English, French and German marketing languageConclusionReferencesThe language of accountingIntroductionLiterature reviewAccounting language and standardisationIFRS and their consequencesIFRS and languageIFRS terminology is not bindingIFRS terminology is not the terminology most commonly used in practiceIFRS terminology is constantly changingIFRS terminology is inconsistent in itselfIFRS terminology is not equivalent across languagesConclusionReferencesProper names in businessIntroductionProduct namesTerminologyFunctions of product namesProduct names and globalisationThe onymic status of product namesFormation and structure of product namesCurrent state of research and desiderataOrganisation namesIntroduction and terminologyStructure of organisation namesNaming motivation and name changeEvent namesDemarcation of other name classesName statusOrigin of namesEmergence of the name className featuresConclusionReferencesBusiness lexicographyIntroductionA comprehensive overview of specialized lexicographyFunction of specialized dictionariesTypology of specialized dictionariesStructure of specialized dictionariesDesigning and making specialized dictionariesSystemizing business terminology and composing business dictionariesFunction of business dictionariesTypology of business dictionariesStructure of business dictionariesDesigning and making business dictionariesOpen questions and quality issuesConclusionReferencesCorpora and corpus linguistic approaches to studying business languageIntroductionCorpus linguistics: principles and practiceCorpora of business languageCorpus research on business languageDoing businessTalking about businessConclusionReferencesV Building bridges across disciplinesOrganizational discourseIntroductionWhy study organizational discourse?The broader picture: A review of key themesEmbarras de richessesIdentityPowerClose-up on languageMetaphorNarrativeChallengesInterdisciplinarityDataResearcher’s stanceConclusionReferencesSpoken workplace discourseIntroductionDefining and describing workplace discourseWhat is special about workplace discourse?Where does workplace talk occur?Contexts and activities in spoken workplace discourse researchKey topicsTheoretical and methodological approaches: Institutional order versus interaction orderLinguistic approaches: Genre analysis, corpus analysis and conversation analysisGenre analysisCorpus analysisConversation analysisConclusionReferencesCorporate language and designIntroductionWhat is a brand?Brand expressionCorporate languageWhat is corporate language?The language guidelines that brands useCorporate designCreating corporate communicationsResearching corporate communicationsIs research always necessary?Which techniques yield the most insight?Wilson’s application of Appraisal Theory to market research interviewsKansei engineering for assessing emotional responses to document designConclusionReferencesThe risks of using standardized text modules as communication vehiclesIntroduction: The fundamental problem of mass communicationThe text-module paradigm and its problemsLinguistic communication: A catalogue of misconceptionsWhat does it mean for a text to be "comprehensible”?The hierarchy of levels of comprehensibilityThe goal of professional writing: convincing the addresseeLinguistic communication in complex social systemsInstitutional styleWriting process and technological output mediaCommunication management: What for?Can the automation-comprehensibility dilemma be solved technologically?References
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