Mixed Models of EI
Emotional and social competency models of EI are more commonly known as mixed models of EI. Bar-On (1988) described the first mixed-model of EI. Bar-On’s model of competencies and skills included:
the ability to be aware of, to understand, and to express oneself; the ability to be aware of, to understand and relate to others; the ability to deal with strong emotions and control one’s impulses; and the ability to adapt to change and to solve problems of a personal or social nature. (Bar-On, 2006, p. 14)
Bar-On’s model, which he later named the Bar-On Model of Emotional- Social Intelligence (ESI), includes the components of interpersonal skills, adaptability, stress management, and general mood (Bar-On, 2006, p. 14). Bar-On’s model reached farther than the original conception and showed signs of overlap with the more general construct of personality. Other scholars developed additional mixed-model approaches to EI.
Goleman and Boyatzis developed another mixed-model approach to EI (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 2000). Goleman’s (1995) bestseller, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ, launched the popular concept of EI and became the “touchstone for many of the controversial issues that continue in the academic field of EI to the present day” (McCleskey, 2014). The Salovey and Mayer ability model inspired the Boyatzis—Goleman mixed-model. However, Boyatzis and Goleman expanded the scope of their model to encompass social and emotional competencies linked to effective performance in the workplace. These included a number of competencies sorted into four clusters: self-awareness, selfmanagement, social awareness, and relationship management (Boyatzis, 2009; Cherniss, 2010; Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2002). This model also showed overlap with the more established construct of personality. An alternative conception views EI as a unique personality trait.
The Trait model of EI consists of four components: well-being (self-confidence, happiness, and optimism); sociability (social competence, assertiveness, and emotion management of others); self-control (stress management, emotion regulation, and low impulses in this); and emotionality (emotional perception of self and others, emotion expression, and empathy). Petrides (2010) describes Trait EI as “the only operational definition in the field that recognizes the inherent subjectivity of emotional experience” (p. 137). Trait EI is a domain comprised of numerous facets including adaptability, assertiveness, emotion expression, emotion management, emotion regulation, impulsiveness, relationships, self-esteem, self-motivation, social awareness, stress management, trait empathy, trait happiness, and trait optimism (Petrides, 2010, p. 137). The trait approach to EI maintains a following within the academic community. Later authors reviewed the distinct paths along which EI was progressing and noted that the research on EI can be categorized along three distinct streams.