Employee Attitudes and Withdrawal Intentions

Previous research in organizational behavior has shown that although they are not the only determinants of performance-related outcomes, positive work attitudes do generally predict turnover intentions (Hom, Caranikas-Walker, Prussia, & Griffeth, 1992) and citizenship behaviors (Organ, 1988), as well as related constructs such as absenteeism (Muchinsky, 1977) and performance (Judge, Thoreson, Bono, & Patton,

  • 2001) in organizations. Following the TRA (see Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) we expect that attitudes, such as affective commitment and job satisfaction have an impact on the development of behavioral intentions amongst employees; and that the stronger the intention to perform the behavior, the more likely should be its performance (Furnham, 2005, p. 233). The strongest and most predictable consequence of organizational commitment is the behavioral intention to quit and seek alternative employment (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990). Indeed, previous research has shown that job satisfaction and organizational commitment are negatively related to intention to quit and actual turnover (Griffeth et al., 2000; Meyer et al.,
  • 2002) . As a result of the relationships described above the following hypotheses are proposed:

H3. There is a negative relationship between affective commitment and intention to leave.

H4. There is a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to leave.

The effects of objective work environments, job design, personality, and psychological climate on more distal outcomes such as performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and turnover are often mediated through happiness related constructs such as job satisfaction, affective commitment, and mood at work (cf. Carr et al., 2003; Mount, Ilies, & Johnson, 2006; Parker et al., 2003; Patterson, Warr, & West, 2004; Podsakoff, LePine, & LePine, 2007). In sum, the evidence suggests that happiness at work does matter not just to employees but also to organizations. Therefore, this research also answers the call by Fisher (2010) to undertake further research in job satisfaction and organizational commitment only if these are used as dependent variables for new happiness-enhancing interventions or as mediating variables carrying the effect of such interventions to performance outcomes — because we already know a lot about job satisfaction and organizational commitment and its correlates. Given the hypotheses

Research Model and Hypotheses

Fig. 1. Research Model and Hypotheses.

stated so far in the research model we can logically deduce two further hypotheses to be tested in this chapter:

H5. Affective commitment mediates the relationship between organizational emotional intelligence and intention to leave.

H6. Job satisfaction mediates the relationship between organizational emotional intelligence and intention to leave.

The six research hypotheses proposed in this chapter are summarized in Fig. 1.

 
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