Globalisation, comparative advantage and the changing dynamics of trade

Breaking through on trade: How a changing world dynamic affects policyIntegration of industrialised and emerging economies has shaped globalisationThe concept of comparative advantage has been pivotal to studying this changeIs comparative advantage still relevant today? What do the patterns of trade tell us?What kind of policies support a dynamic comparative advantage?ConclusionsNotesReferencesI. Is comparative advantage still relevant today?Comparative advantage: The theory behind measurementThe Ricardian trade modelA variable-cost trade modelMeasuring comparative advantageRevealed Comparative Advantage (RCA)The factor content of tradeGravity modelsConclusionsNotesReferencesProduction, consumption and trade developments in the era of globalisation Globalisation, trade, FDI and growth developmentsOverview of production, employment and consumption developments in OECD countriesProduction and employmentApparent consumptionSelected trade developments Market sharesComposition of trade flows by broad product categoriesSimilarity of trade specialisation patternsConclusionsNotesReferencesComparative advantage and export specialisation mobilityComparative advantage hypothesis and economic policyMeasurement of comparative advantage and meaning of RCA indicesOverview of export specialisation patterns by broad sectorDynamics of specialisation at the product levelShape of RCA index distributionIntra-distributional mobilityDynamics of specialisation by intensity of factor useConclusionsNotesReferencesChanging patterns of trade in processed agricultural productsWhat agricultural products are considered processed?Trends in trade and productionTrends in agricultural tradeTrends in trade of processed agricultural productsDirection of trade in processed productsMajor exporting countriesMajor importing countriesRevealed comparative advantage and growthCorrelation with selected trade facilitation proxiesDoes what you export matter?ConclusionsNotesReferencesHave changes in factor endowments been reflected in trade patterns?The Heckscher-Ohlin theory of international tradeTrends in factor endowmentsProductivityMeasuring factor contentRanking factor contentDataHow has factor usage within a country changed over time?NotesReferencesII. What kind of policies support a dynamic comparative advantage?Comparative advantage and trade performance: Policy implicationsSources of comparative advantageEmpirical methodologyThe empirical modelMeasurement of comparative advantageFactor intensities and factor endowmentsHuman capital intensity and education policyDependence on external credit and availability of creditEnergy intensity and energy supplyInput concentration and business climateSales volatility and labour market rigidityImported intermediate inputs and import tariff policyResultsWhat have been the main sources of comparative advantage in the last decade?Factor intensities and factor endowmentsHuman capital intensity and education policyDependence on external credit and credit availabilityEnergy intensity and energy supplyInput concentration and doing business climateSales volatility and labour market rigidityImported intermediate inputs and import tariff policyHas comparative advantage become less or more relevant for the trade of OECD and non-OECD countries?ConclusionsNotesReferencesThe role of intermediate inputs and equipment imports in dynamic gains from tradeWhat do we know about dynamic gains?The role of policyMeasuring the dynamic effects: Methodology and dataDataRegressions using firm-level dataThe role of complementary policiesResultsImpact on productivity and innovationResults including complementary policiesConclusionsNotesReferencesDeterminants of diffusion and downstreaming of technology-intensive products in international trade BackgroundThe product cycle: Concept and evidencePredictions of trade theory about the product cycleSynthesisEmpirical strategy and data descriptionMain features of the datasetConstruction of indicesStylized facts and anomaliesRelationship between diffusion and downstreaming in cross-sections and time seriesSector-specific patternsFor the product landscape as a wholeMachinery, computers, and instrumentsOrganic chemicals and allied productsTechnological difficulty and the production chainConclusionsNotesReferencesIntellectual property reform and productivity enhancement byMotivationLiterature reviewSummaryAnalytical approach and dataResultsConclusionsNotesReferencesThe impact of export restrictions on raw materials on trade and global supplyWhy are export restrictions used?Who is using export restrictions?Economic effects of export restrictionsThe inefficiency and ineffectiveness of export restrictionsWorld market effects: Export restrictions during food price spike 2007/08Substitution to other suppliers: India chromite export taxDo export restrictions meet their stated objectives?Alternative policies to address environmental concerns in mining: Chile copper mining taxConclusionsNotesReferencesComparative advantage and structural change: Toward a complementary policy regimeComparative advantage and structural changeComplementary trade and structural policiesTrade liberalization strategiesMultilateral co-operationRTAsConcerted liberalisationStructural change strategiesImproving labour marketsImproving capital marketsInfrastructureConclusionsNotesReferences
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