Sex Crimes and Sex Offenders: Research and Realities

PREFACEMORAL PANIC AND REALITYWHAT IS A SEX CRIME?SOURCES AND NUMBERS OF SEX CRIMES AND OFFENDERSUnited Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS)National Violence Against Women SurveyHISTORICAL ROOTS OF CONDUCTING SEX RESEARCHHOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOREXPERIENCED PREMARITAL SEXSEXUAL DEVIANCES: PARAPHILIASONCE A SEX OFFENDER, ALWAYS A SEX OFFENDER?ADDRESSING SEX-OFFENDER AND SEX-CRIME MYTHSMyths About the Number of, and Trends Associated with, Sex OffendersMyths Regarding Why Sex Offenders Commit Sex CrimesMyths Regarding Rapists, Rape, and Rape VictimsMyths Regarding Child Molesters, Child Molestation, and Child VictimsMyths Regarding Child Pornographers, Child Pornography, and Victims of Child PornographyMyths Regarding Juvenile Sex Offenders, Offenses, and VictimsMyths Regarding Female Sex Offenders, Offenses, and VictimsMyths Regarding Institutional AbuseMyths Regarding Investigating AbuseMyths Regarding Assessment and Treatment of Sex OffendersMyths Regarding Which Community Sanctions Should Exist for Sex OffendersREVIEW POINTSREFERENCESDEFINITIONSTheories about Sex Crimes and Sex OffendersTWO TYPES OF THEORIES ABOUT SEX CRIMES AND SEX OFFENDERSPROBABILISTIC NATURE OF THEORIESSEX-CRIME AND SEX-OFFENDER SPECIFIC THEORIESBiological TheoriesHormones and neurotransmittersTemporal lobe abnormalitiesGenetics and Sex Chromosome AbnormalitiesIntelligence Deficits (Mental Retardation)Behavioral TheoriesSelf-Regulation Model of Sexual Offending.Cognitive TheoriesAttachment TheoryCognitive SchemasCognitive BiasesPsychological TheoriesPersonality Profile and Traits of Sex OffendersMULTIPLE-FACTOR THEORIES OF SEX CRIMES AND SEX OFFENDERSFinkelhor's (1984) Precondition TheoryHall and Hirschman's Quadripartite TheoryMarshall and Barbaree's Integrated TheoryTHEORIES ABOUT CRIME IN GENERALHirschi's Social Control (Bonding) TheoryGottfredson and Hirschi's Self-Control TheoryCohen and Felson's Routine Activity TheoryAkers' Social Learning TheoryLOGIC MODEL OF SEX-OFFENDER CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIORSCONCLUSIONREVIEW POINTSREFERENCESDEFINITIONSRapeRAPE MYTHSSituational Rape MythsRape only happens to young, attractive womenRape only happens to "bad" womenMost rape claims are falsePeople who rape are mentally ill or psychoticOnly men can rape and only women can be rapedUnsafe, unmonitored places are breeding grounds for rape and sexual assaultAttitudinal Rape MythsRAPE LAW IN THE U.S.Women as PropertyRape Reform MovementCurrent Rape LawRAPISTSHostile MasculinityAggressive Sexual BeliefsPhysical and Psychological AggressionHistory of ViolenceAlcohol Use and AbuseTYPOLOGIES OF RAPISTSGroth's TypologyPower RapistPower Reassurance Rapist (also known as the Gentleman Rapist)Power Assertive RapistAnger RapistSadistic/Ritualistic RapistMassachusetts Treatment Center Rapist Typology, Version 3 (MTC: R3)Opportunistic Rapists (Types 1 and 2).Pervasively Angry Rapists (Type 3)Sexual Gratification Rapists (Types 4, 5, 6, and 7)Vindictive Rapists (Types 8 and 9)VICTIMSEffects of Rape on VictimsMale Rape VictimsCRIMINAL JUSTICE RESPONSE TO RAPEPolice Reporting and ResponseProsecutorial Decision MakingCase AdjudicationCURRENT ISSUES IN RAPE: CORRECTIVE RAPECONCLUSIONREVIEW POINTSREFERENCESDEFINITIONSChild Sexual AbuseMYTHS ON CHILD SEXUAL ABUSEChild Sexual Abusers Target Any and All ChildrenChildren Who Are Sexually Abused Will Sexually Abuse Others When They Grow upAll Child Sexual Abusers Are PedophilesIf We Protect Our Children from Strangers, Child Sexual Abuse Will Not Be a ProblemChild Sexual-Abuse Cases Are Wrought with False Accusations and Exaggerated AccountsAll Child Sexual Abusers Are MonstersHISTORICAL TRENDS IN CHILD SEXUAL-ABUSE LAWS, POLICIES, AND SOCIETAL RESPONSESGROOMING TACTICSTarget SelectionBefriending the TargetDesensitizing the TargetMaintenanceCHILD SEXUAL-ABUSE TYPOLOGIESGroth, Hobson, and Gary (1982) TypologyFederal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Typologies (Lanning, 1986)Massachusetts Treatment Center: Child Molester Typology, Version 3 (MTC:CM3)VICTIMSConsequences of Child Sexual AbuseBarriers to DisclosureCRIMINAL JUSTICE RESPONSE TO CHILD SEXUAL ABUSEReporting Child Sexual AbuseProsecutorial Issues: The Role of Child TestimonyVery Young VictimsFactors Affecting Criminal Trial ProceedingsMedical EvidenceBehavioral EvidenceCONCLUSIONREVIEW POINTSREFERENCESCourt CasesDEFINITIONSChild PornographyDEFINING CHILD PORNOGRAPHYTHE HISTORY OF CHILD PORNOGRAPHY LAWHistory of ObscenityGrowing Awareness of Child ExploitationHow the Internet Changed the Child Pornography Industry and LawDESCRIPTION OF CHILD PORNOGRAPHY OFFENDERSEarly Perceptions of Child Pornography OffendersModern Perceptions of Child Pornography OffendersHeterogeneity among Child Pornography OffendersImpulsive Child Pornography OffendersChild Pornography Offenders and Pedophiles: Cut From the Same Cloth?Concurrence of Child Pornography and Child Sexual-Abuse CrimesProducers, Distributors, and Profiteers: Beyond Possession of Child PornographyChild Pornography Offenders and Other Sex OffendersCRIMINAL JUSTICE RESPONSES TO CHILD PORNOGRAPHERSInvestigating Child PornographyProsecuting Child PornographyPenalties and Sentencing for Child PornographersCURRENT ISSUES IN CHILD PORNOGRAPHY: SEXTINGCONCLUSIONREVIEW POINTSREFERENCESDEFINITIONSJuvenile Sex OffendersOVERVIEW OF JUVENILE SEX OFFENDERSCHARACTERISTICS OF JUVENILE SEX OFFENDERSFamily DysfunctionAcademic Performance and Intelligence (IQ)Substance AbuseEmotional IntelligenceBehaviors and Victim CharacteristicsMental IllnessDepressionConduct Disorder, ADD/ADHD and ImpulsivenessJuvenile Sex Offenders Compared to Other GroupsJUVENILE SEX-OFFENDER DISTINCTIONS AND TYPOLOGIESDistinction: Juveniles Who Abuse Peers vs. Juveniles Who Abuse ChildrenTypologiesTypologies Based on PersonalityEXPLANATIONS OF JUVENILES COMMITTING SEX CRIMESExperimentationExposure to PornographySexual-Abuse CycleAn Extension of Antisocial BehaviorCRIMINAL JUSTICE RESPONSE TO JUVENILE SEX OFFENDERSJuvenile Waivers to Adult CourtSentencing Outcomes for JuvenilesRequirement to Register: Adam Walsh ActCivil CommitmentJUVENILE SEX-OFFENDER ASSESSMENTJuvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (J-SOAP-II)Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism (ERASOR)Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool-II (JSORRAT-II)Multiplex Empirically Guided Inventory of Ecological Aggregates for Assessing Sexually Abusive Adolescents and Children (MEGA^)JUVENILE SEX-OFFENDER TREATMENTJUVENILE SEX-OFFENDER RECIDIVISMRARE JUVENILE SEX OFFENDERSJuvenile Female Sex OffendersJuvenile Sex Offenders as Sexual MurderersCONCLUSIONREVIEW POINTSREFERENCESDEFINITIONSFemale Sex OffendersNUMBER OF KNOWN FEMALE SEX OFFENDERSCHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE SEX OFFENDERSCOMPARISON OF FEMALE AND MALE SEX OFFENDERSTYPOLOGIES OF FEMALE SEX OFFENDERSVandiver & Kercher's (2004) TypologySummary of Female Sex Offender TypologiesEXPLANATIONS OF FEMALE SEX OFFENDERS AND OFFENDINGASSESSMENT OF FEMALE SEX OFFENDERSTREATMENT OF FEMALE SEX OFFENDERSRECIDIVISM OF FEMALE SEX OFFENDERSCONCLUSIONREVIEW POINTSREFERENCESDEFINITIONSInstitutional Abuse: Child Molesters and RapistsINSTITUTIONAL ABUSE CHARACTERISTICSClergy Who Molest ChildrenEducators and Child MolestationChildcare Providers and Child MolestingAthletic Organizations and Child MolestingCivic Organizations and Child MolestationLaw Enforcement Officials Who RapeRAPE WITHIN INSTITUTIONSProfessional and University Athletic OrganizationsHigher Education InstitutionsPrisonsMilitaryCONCLUSIONREVIEW POINTSREFERENCESDEFINITIONSInvestigations of Sex Crimes and Sex OffendersSEX-CRIMES INVESTIGATIONSProfiling and Crime-Scene BasicsEmergency (911) Operators and First RespondersInterviewing Vulnerable VictimsMedical Examinations of Sexual-Assault VictimsInterviewing SuspectsSEX CRIMES WITH UNIQUE INVESTIGATIONAL OBSTACLESSexual HomicideA Critical Consideration: FantasyTheoretical Explanations of Sexual HomicideTypologyAlcohol- and Drug-Facilitated RapesAutoerotic Asphyxiation and Accidental DeathsFalse Rape AllegationsCOMMON INVESTIGATIONAL FAILURESCognitive BiasesOrganizational TrapsErrors in ProbabilitiesCONCLUSIONREVIEW POINTSREFERENCESDEFINITIONSAssessment Tools and Treatment of Sex OffendersOVERVIEW OF SEX-OFFENDER ASSESSMENTSDevelopment of AssessmentsGoals of AssessmentsCommon Risk FactorsSEX-OFFENDER ASSESSMENT TOOLSOverview of Commonly Used Assessment ToolsAssessment Tools with Objective Measures, but without Cut-Off Scores Phallometric AssessmentsActuarial AssessmentsEffectiveness of Sex-Offender Assessment ToolsPSYCHOPATHYTREATMENT OF SEX OFFENDERSHistory of Treatment DevelopmentsHormonal ResponseBehavioral TherapyCastrationCognitive ProcessesPolygraphCognitive-Behavioral TherapyTreatment EffectivenessCONCLUSIONREVIEW POINTSREFERENCESDEFINITIONSRegistration Laws and Civil Commitment of Sex OffendersSEX-CRIMES PREVENTION STRATEGIESSex-Offender Registration/Notification LawsU.S. Sex-Offender Registration LawsJacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration ActMegan's LawPam Lynchner Sex Offender Tracking and Identification Act of 1996Adam Walsh Act (SORNA)Office of Sex Offending Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking (SMART)National Sex Offender Public RegistryState-Level Laws: Erin's LawSummary of Registration/Notification LawsAssumptions of Sex-Offender Registration/Notification LawsEffects of Sex-Offender Registration/Notification LawsAdditional Requirements for Sex OffendersResidence RestrictionsCIVIL COMMITMENT LAWS FOR SEX OFFENDERSLeroy HendricksThe Kansas Sexually Violent Predator ActThe U.S. Supreme Court and the Sexually Violent Predator ActCivil Commitment Laws in the U.S.CONCLUSIONREVIEW POINTSREFERENCESDEFINITIONSBRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER: ALL SEX OFFENDERS ARE (NOT) THE SAMEMYTHS, UNANSWERED QUESTIONS, AND FUTURE DIRECTIONSMyths Regarding the Number of Sex Crimes and Sex Offenders and Associated TrendsMyths Regarding Why Sex Offenders Commit Sex CrimesMyths Regarding Rapists, Rape, and Rape VictimsMyths Regarding Child Sexual Abuse, Child Molestation, and Child VictimsMyths Regarding Child Pornographers, Child Pornography, and Victims of Child PornographyMyths Regarding Juvenile Sex Offenders, Crimes, and VictimsMyths Regarding Female Sex Offenders, Crimes, and VictimsMyths Regarding Institutional AbuseMyths Regarding Investigating AbuseMyths Regarding Assessment and Treatment of Sex OffendersMyths Regarding Which Community Sanctions Should Exist for Sex OffendersTHE EFFECTS OF SEX-CRIME AND SEX-OFFENDER MYTHSREFERENCES
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